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Fenster schliessen


2 Substances Descartes

mind and matter


- non-spatial

- private

- has mental qualities

Matter oder Material:

- Spatial

- has material qualities

- public


Fenster schliessen

Interactive Dualism


diese Frage wird mit unteschiedlichen ism's beantwortet

How can two fundamentally different things/substances causally interact?

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 Positions which try to answer the question of „Interactive Dualism” bzw. der Frage der Interaktion?

  • Parallelism
  • Occasionalism
  • Epiphenomenalism
  • Idealism
  • Non-cartesian Dualism (! ≠ Descartes Sichtweise)
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= Mind and matter co-vary, WITHOUT interatction

- mental occurs paralles with the material

- no interaction between the substances; only correlations (mental with mental and physical with physical)

- possible Reasons:

  • This is the fundamental state of the universe (‘brute fact’)

  • God as a clockmaker

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(Nicholas Malebranche)

- God as an only causal agent, which actively OCCASIONS every event

- Mind and matter do NOT causally interact

- there is no nexus, just regularities

- there is only APPEARANCE of causation

- God is the ONLY causal agent

- Reality is a sequence of metaphysically independent stages

- causation is only appearance, the main rolle plays god


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Def. Causality

Causal nexus: what connects two causally related events

kind of transfer that causes another event

Transference (Descartes): some QUANTITY gets transferred (e.g. motion, energy)


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Frage aus der Klasse zum God

God war im Parallelismus zur Beginn der WElt dabei und das war es, aber in Occaionalimus hat er eine aktive Rolle nach wie vor.

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Main points of Huxley

- Animals are automata

- not the conscousness causes the body