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How do aircraft normally land/take-off?
into the wind
What has to be taken into account when surface wind conditions are "light and variable"?
wind at 2000 ft possibility of wind shear
What if a pilot request the use of another runway than the rwy in use?
- he may face delay - permission may be deferred until traffic situation permits
What factors are taken into consideration when choosing a runway in use?
- number + type of aircraft programmed for airport (aerodrome traffic circuit) - length of runway(s) - weather conditions (present and forecast) - availability of approach aids in poor visibility conditions - location of other aircraft - taxiing distances, including availability of taxiways - runway surface and braking conditions
What are possible reasons for selecting/changing a runway?
- CB on approach/climb-out - pilots request - equipment serviceability - noise restrictions - runway maintenance - sun low in the sky - wind shear - local geography - seperate runways for arrivals/departures - aircraft types - wind - visibility / RVR - adjacent aerodromes (conflicting circuits or procedures) - time of day (traffic direction) - blocked runway - to expedite traffic
What are the advanteges/disadvanteges of headwind and tailwind?
HEADWIND - lower GND speed required - reduced GND roll - arrivals / departures steeper (to clear obstacles) - lower power requirement for same IAS
TAILWIND - higher GND speed required - increased GND roll - shallower approach at normal rate - more susceptible to turbulence, gusts, speed variations - higher power requirement for same IAS - less safety margin
What's important when choosing a runway in use with tailwind component (what has to be done)?
Include word "tailwind" in wind statement with landing clearance:
"...tailwind 230 degrees 5 knots, ..."
What are possible crosswind problems?
- un-stabilized approaches - flight control saturation - pilot induced oscillation - loss of situational awareness - fatigue - localizer overshoot - overruns - short/hard landings - wingtip/pod strikes - tail strikes - landing gear fatigue