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What is wake turbulence? When does it occur? How?
Wake vortices, formed any time an aerofoil is producing lift.
Result of the high pressure air (below wing) moving towards the low pressure air which is moving inwards. -> curling effect
How do wake turbulence spread?
Laterally, from the rear of the aircraft.
up to 5 NM / 500-900 ft
What are wake turbulences characteristics (of movement?
- at 5 kts sidewards - at 500 ft / min / 30 seconds downwards - move with the wind
What's the greatest hazard of wake turbulences?
Induced roll and yaw.
Name the wake turbulence categories incl. values (ICAO and Switzerland)?
MTOW (maximum take-off weight)
ICAO: - L (light), 7'000 kg and less - M (medium), more than 7'000 kg and less than 136'000 kg - H (heavy), 136'000 kg and more
Switzerland: - L (light), 7'000 kg or less - S (small), more than 7000 kg up to 40'000 kg - M (medium), more than 40'000 kg and less than 136'000 kg - H (heavy), 136'000 kg and more
(- super: J in FPL, H as wake turbulence, A380)
When are you NOT required to apply wake turbulence separation?
Arrival behind Arrival only – same runway
For who do you have to issue a wake turbulence cautionary advisory?
Arrival behind arrival on same runway:
- arriving VFR flights landing on same runway as preceeding heavy or medium aircraft OR - arriving IFR flights executing visual approach when aircraft has reported preceeding aircraft in sight and has been instructed to follow and maintain own separation from that aircraft.
What do wake turbulence caution advisory apply to?
- parallel runway less than 760 m away - crossing runway when flight paths will cross - arrival if it will cross flight path of departure - departure if it will cross flight path of arrival - cautionary message issue for at least 2 min following the passage of larger aircraft