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Define group and differentiate between different types of groups
GROUP two or more individuals, interacting and interdeoendent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
FORMAL GROUP A seignated work group defined by an organizations structure Command Group A group composed of the individuals who report directly to the need for social contact. Task Group People working together to complete a job task
INFORMAL GROUP Group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determindes; such a group appears in response to the need for social contact Interest Group People working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned Friendship Group Poeple brought together because they share one or more common characteristics
Temporary groups have own sequencing actions: 1. Their first meeting sets the group´s direction 2. This first phase of group activity is one of inertia (Schwerfälligkeit) 3. a transition (Übergang / Druchgang) takes place at the end of this first phase (halftime) 4. a transition initiates major changes 5. a second phase of inertia follows the transition 6. the group´s last meeting characterised by markedly accelerated activity (besonders beschleunigt)
What are the reasons to join a group?
Security Status Self-esteem Affiliation Power Goal Achievement
Explain how role requirements change in different situations (Group Property 1: roles)
GROUP PROPERTY 1: ROLES A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social untit. Role Identity Certain attitudes and behavior consistent with a role Role Perception An individual´s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation Role expectations How others believe a person should act in a fiven situation Role conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent (abweichend / untersch.) role expectations
Describe how norms exert influence on an individual‘s behavior Group Property 2: Norms (Impact: Norms, Classes of norms, reference groups, conformity)
Norms acceptable standards of behavior whithin a group that are shared by the group´s memebrs
Classes of Norms: Performance norms Appearance norms Social arrangement norms Allocation of resources norms
Reference Groups Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.
Conformity The adjustment of one´s behavior to align wit the norms of the group
Describe how norms exert influence on an individual‘s behavior
Group Property 2: Defying Norms - deviant workplace behavior
Deviant Workplace behavior Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization
Typology of deviant workplace behavior
Production: Leaving early, wasting resources... Property: Sabotage, Lying about hours worked, stealing from organization... Political: Showing favouritism, blaming co-workers Personal aggression: sexual harassment, verbal abuse...
Describe how status exert influence on an individual‘s behavior
Group Property 3: Status
What determines status?
Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others - it differentiates group members
Determined by: Status Characteristics Theory Status derived from 1 of 3 sources: - The power a person wields over others - The ability to contribute to group goals - The individual‘s personal characteristics