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Fenster schliessen

General features of homeostasis (6)


Set point (eg temp. of 37 C)

Detector (eg temperatur sensors)

Control centre which decides what to do next 

Regulatory mechanisms to carry message from control centre 

Effectors or mechanisms to change factor (eg shivering)

Often involves negative feedback loops


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Feedback loop (composition (what is it, how it brings features back to set point)

Receptor (observe controlled condtition and detect changes) -> control centre (determines next action) -> effector (receives directions from control centre & produces response to put the condition back to normal)

Fenster schliessen

Nervous system (what does it control? (2), example)

Bodily activities that require quick response, detects changes in external environment and initiates reactions

Body temperature 

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Endocrine system (hormonal system) (what does it control? (3), example)

Regulation of activites with long duration, control of concentration of nutrients, through regulating the kidney function -> control of internal environment's volume and electrolyte composition


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How does fat,fur, hair insulate animals? 

Blubber is a layer under the skin which keeps them warmth, as well as fur and hair adaptations (cold area -> more fur/hair, hot area -> less fur/hair)

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How does evaporation cools animals (3)?

Primary method to cool down

Sweating = Sweat glands releases water onto the outer surface of the skin and this water then evaporates and cools the skin down

Panting = Release heat through mouth

Bathing = Elefants splashes water over him and cools down 

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How does shivering increase temperature?

Actin & Myosin interaction and ATP hydrolysis

Muscles bound - not bound - bound ... quick crossbridging of muscles

uses a big amount of energy 

Heat generation -> maintains our body temperature

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How does brown fat and thermogenesis (heat production in cells) allow thermoregulation?

Brown adipose tissue produces heat by non-shivering thermogenesis

Thermogenine is located in mitochondrial membrane of brown fat cells

It uncouples proton movement from ATP -> Energy change produces heat instead of ATP molecules

Brown fat contains of more capillaries than white fat, these capillaries supply oxygen and nutrients and distribute the heat throghout the body