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A metaphor involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects, we deal with personification. ("the face of London", "the pain of the ocean"). It can be expressed by all notional parts of speech, & functions in the sentence as any of its members.
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated. ("Will you have another cup?" (a cup of tea), "The White House asked the television networks for air time on Monday night.").
A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole or the whole for a part. Synecdoche in the Lord's Prayer: "bread" represents all food
a humorous use of a word, a play on words that has two meanings, or of words with the same sound but different meanings.('The violinist spent the night in a vile inn', vile inn (=poor hotel) sounds like violin).
the use of a word twice in the same sentence but with different meanings. ('She broke the record and her leg')
A form of humour in which you use words to express the opposite of what the words really mean. ("She turned with the sweet smile of an alligator")
It'a a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or vice versa, i.e. in which the nominal meaning or the logical one acquires the new - nominal- component. ("The next speaker was a tall gloomy man. Sir Smth Somebody").
It expresses characteristics of an object, both existing and imaginary. Its basic feature is its emotiveness & subjectivity. ("true love", "merry Christmas", "blood-red sky").