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Kartei Details

Karten 38
Sprache Deutsch
Kategorie Psychologie
Stufe Grundschule
Erstellt / Aktualisiert 13.01.2015 / 13.01.2015
Lizenzierung Kein Urheberrechtsschutz (CC0)
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Preoccupations of Qualitative Research

 - Seeking through the eyes of those studied
 - Unexpected findings
 - emphasis on context
 - "thick description of what is going on"
 - emphasize on social process
 - flexible
 - limited structure





Challenges in Qualitative Data Analysis

 - large data base
 - richness of data makes it difficult to find analytic paths
 - no clear-cut rules

Qualitative Data Analysis

 choice of method depends on type of problem and type of data

Overview Qualitative Data Analysis

Coding and Categorizing (Daten in Kategorien aufsplitten)
 - Theoretical Coding
 - Thematic Coding

Narrative and Hermaneutic Coding (trying to conduct sense of narrative, read btw. the lines)
 - Narrative Analysis
 - Objective Hermaneutics

 Conversation Analysis


Predominently Qualitative vs. Quantitative Analysis

Analysis of latent (verborgen) meaning
- Wörtlichkeit ist wichtig, meaning btw. the lines

Analysis of apparent meaning
 - often large amounts of data, computer aided procedures


Critics Grounded Theory

 - disputable whether theory-neutral observation is feasible
 - often required to build studies on what is already known
 - results may end in concepts, but not in theory
 - unclear difference between concepts and categories


Grounded Theory Advantages

 - Capturing Complexity
 - Linking with Practise
 - Putting life into well-established fields
 - facilitating theoretical work in areas that have not been well researched

Tools of Grounded Theory

 - Theoretical Sampling
 - Coding
 - Theoretical Saturation
 - Constant Comparison

Outcomes of Grounded Theory

 - Concepts
 - Categories
 - Properties
 - Hypothesis
 - Theory

Considerations in Coding

 - Cose as soon as possible
 - Make as many notes as possible
 - Review the codes
 - While you read the transcript for the first time, do not make notes

Theory in Grounded Theory

 - Substantive Theory, based on research on a specific area, näher an Praxis

 - Formal Theory, more general and has more absolute validity

Analytical Induction vs. Grounded Theory

Universal explanations of phenomena by pursuing the collection of data until no cases incosistent with hypothesis are found

Theory is driven from data. Data collection and analysis proceed in tandem, repeatedly referring back to each other

Procedures of Coding

1.) Categories for topics
2.) Sub-Categories and typical characteristics
3.) structure topics with respect of importance
4.) similarities and differences between interviews
5.) answer research question




Mixed Methods - Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Quntitative, Qualitative, Equal Weight (priority)
 - Quan -> qual (sequence)
 - Qual --> Quan
 - Concurrent (gleichzeitig)

Reasons for Mixed Methods 

 1.) Qualitative research facilitates (erleichtern) quantatitive research

 - Providing Hypothesis
 - Theorie aufstellen und dann messen (induktiv -> deduktiv)

2.) Quantitative Research facilitates Qualitative
 - mit Survey alle fragen und dann die spannendsten noch einzeln befragen

3.) Filling the Gaps

4.) Static and Processual Features
 - vergleich über Jahre, da hilft eine Statistik

5.) Solving the problem of generality
 - Qualitative kann sehr generell sein

6.) Facilitation of Interpretation
 - Qualitative kann helfen quantitative zu interpretieren

What are Case Studies

 - brauchen oft qualitative und quantitative Methoden
 - investigate a contemporary (zeitgemässe) phenomenon within its real-life context
 - boundaries btw. phenomenon and context are not clearly evident
 - are of use when many more variables are of interest than data points and more than one result
 - relies on multiple source of evidence (triangular fashion)
 - benefit from existing theoretical propositions to guide data collection

Possible Case Studys

 - A single organisation (Hofstede at IBM)
 - A single location (Honda in USA)
 - A single event (Swiss grounding)

Evaluating Case Study Design

 - big issue concerns external validity, because its impossible to generalize the findings
 - stil, many researchers point out that it is the attempt to examine particulars rather than generalize
 - may be extended longitudinal or through comparative design (vergleich macht es genereller)

Epistomology vs. Ontology

What is Knowledge? How do we gather knowledge?

What is reality composed of? Ist there an objective reality?


 - Natural Science
 - Deductive
 - Objective
 - Difference btw. normativ and scientific



 - "verstehen"
 - Hermaneutic-phenomenon logical Tradition
 - Symbolic Interaction
 - Induction
 - Subjectiv

Objectivism vs. Constructivism

 - Social phenomena and their meaning are independent and therefore objective

 - Reality is constructed
 - Everyone sees the world through their own eyes
 - Researchers and their objectcs of interest are linked

Types of Theory

 - Middle Range Theories (e.g. Explanation why women are underrepresented)

 - Grand Theory (e.g. Critical Theory)

Definition of Theory

Explanation of observed regularities


1.) Theory
2.) Hypothesis
3.) Data Collection
4.) Findings


1.) Preliminary Assumptions
2.) Datal Collection
3.) Hypothesis
4.) Theory

Key Characteristics Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

Understanding of Reality
 - is objective vs. is socially constructed

 - deductive, testing of hypothesis, explanators vs. Inductive, Developing Hypothesis, Understand

 - Controlled conditions, fixed procedures, narrow and precise, focus on numbers vs. Natural conditions, flexible, comprehensive, little measuring


Research Designs

 - Experimental Design

 - Cross-Sectional Design

 - Longitudinal Design

 - Case Study Design

 - Comparative Design

What is a research design

guides the execution of a research method and the analysis of the data


Qualitative Methods

 Qualitative Interviews
 - Narrative
 - Problem-Centered
 - Expert
 - Focus Group


Documents as Data

Beginner Mistakes Interview

 - dominant communication style
 - suggestive questions
 - problems with passive listening
 - too rigid handling of interview guide

Kvale's criteria of a successful interviewer

 - Structering
 - Gentle
 - Clear
 - Open
 - Steering
 - Critical