Advantages and disadvantages of process layout
Advantages: Lower work-in-process inventories, shorter processing times, less material handling, lower labor skills, and simple planning and control systems.
Disadvantages: A breakdown at one workstation can cause the entire process to shut down; a change in product design or the introduction of new products may require major changes in the layout, limiting flexibility.
Consists of a functional grouping of equipment or activities that do similar work.
(Legal office, shoe manufacturing)
Advantages: A lower investment in equipment, the diversity of jobs inherent in a process layout can lead to increased worker satisfaction.
•Disadvantages: High movement and transportation costs, more complicated planning and control systems, longer total processing time, higher in-process inventory or waiting time, and higher worker-skill requirements.
Self-contained groups of equipment (cells) needed for producing a particular set of goods or services.
(Medical specialties: maternity, surgery)
Advantages: Reduced materials-handling requirements, quicker response to quality problems, more efficient use of floor space, more worker responsibility increasing morale.
Disadvantages: Duplication of equipment among cells, greater worker skills requirements.
fixed position layout
The resources necessary to manufacture a good or deliver a service, such as people, materials, and equipment, are consolidated in one physical location.
(heavy machine tools, airplanes)
Advantages: Work remains stationary, reducing movement.
Disadvantages: High level of planning and control required.
flow-blocking delay vs. lack of work delay
-Flow-blocking delay occurs when a work center completes a unit but cannot release it because the in-process storage at the next stage is full. The worker must remain idle until storage space becomes available.
•Lack-of-work delay occurs whenever one stage completes work and no units from the previous stage are awaiting processing.
Combining the components of a good or service that has been created previously.
Assembly line balancing
Technique to group tasks among workstations so that each workstation has—in the ideal case—the same amount of work.