Karten 19 Karten
Lernende 2 Lernende
Sprache English
Stufe Universität
Erstellt / Aktualisiert 21.01.2015 / 16.01.2017
Lizenzierung Keine Angabe
0 Exakte Antworten 19 Text Antworten 0 Multiple Choice Antworten
Fenster schliessen

Lingua Franca

a language that is used for communication by people who do not share a common native language

Fenster schliessen

Minimal Pairs

words that differ in just one sound in the same position

e.g. hit, fit

Fenster schliessen


semantic transparency, meaning of the whole word can be deduced from the meaning of its parts

e.g. teapot

Fenster schliessen


opposite of transparent

e.g. breakfast <to break the fast>

Fenster schliessen

Blocked/Unique Morphemes

Certain morhpemes are used in one word-formation only {Mon-] in Monday {cran-] in cranberry

Fenster schliessen

Portmanteau morpheme

Whenevery an element of language contains the meaning of more that one morpheme but cannot be divided into different morphemes on a formal level, it's called portmanteau morpheme.

e.g. took combines {take} and {-D} but cannot be divided into two morphemes on a formal level

Fenster schliessen


productive morphemes:

{-er} for agentive nouns --> singer, dancer, teacher


unproductive/nonproductive morphemes:

{-the} for derivation Adj --> noun     length, width

Fenster schliessen

Perspectives within phonetics

1. articulatory phonetics: production of sounds, what to do in our mouth

2. acoustic phonetics: transmission of sounds, physica qualities e.g. volume, duration, frequency

3. auditory phonetics: perception of sounds, intake through the ear, processing in the brain

Fenster schliessen

Linguistic Sign

Ferdninand de Saussure

[tri¦]           expression     signifiant       sound pattern

Bild           meaning         signifié           concept



there is no internal link between the sound shape and the meaning of the linguistic sign.

Fenster schliessen

Noam Chamsky

Competence- Performance

Competence: the knowledge we have of the language we grow up with

Performance: the speech we actually produce


Me Tarzan, You Jane


Fenster schliessen

Opposition pairs

like competence and performance

descriptive-prescriptive: factual language use/ binding rules for correct use of the language

synchronic-diachronic: language at a specific point of time/ language changes over time

Non-constrastive-constrastive: monolingual-one language in focus/ languages are compared and contrasted

Fenster schliessen

Main periods of history of English

Old English       450(700)-1100

Middle English   1100-1500

Early Modern English  500-1700

Modern English  ab 1700

Fenster schliessen

Old English

Germanic tribes arrive from the middle of the fifth century

-mostly Germanic word-stock

-fully inflected

-inflections begin to be levelled

Fenster schliessen

Early Modern English

introducing of printing into England by William Canxton in 1476

spread of English around the world starts (Colonisation)

-Great Vowel Shift

-Standarisation and regularisation

-large-sclae borrowing from Latin, Greek, French and other European languages

Fenster schliessen

Middle English

Norman Conquest in 1066 --> start Renaissance--> End

-enormous influx of French vocabulary

-levelld inflections

-Great Vowel Shift starts

Fenster schliessen

Modern English

English as a global language

-almost no inflections

-borrowing from many languages world-wide

Fenster schliessen

Latin loan words

street, wall, wine, kitchen

dorchester, Lancester..

abbot, altar, candle, pope (Christianizing)

Latin as the base for most of the French words

benefit, demonstrate, expensive, modest (Renaissance)

Fenster schliessen

Scandinavian loan words

Place  names; -by, -thorpe, -thwaite, -toft

words starting with <sk>

words of daily life: egg, husband, ill, knife, law, take

function words: they, them, their

Fenster schliessen

French loan words

Government and Administration: crown, empire, majesty, parliament

Ecclesiastical words: abbey, cloister, religion, saint, virgin

Law: crime, judgement, justice, prison

Army and Navy: battle, enemy, soldier

Lifestyle, Fashion, Meal and Social Life: appetite, beef, feast, jewel, leisure

Art, Learning, Medicine: beauty, chapter, literature, music, poet