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The Consumer Decision Process

5 Steps

Need Recognition 

Search for Information 

Evaluation of Alternatives 

Purchase and Consumption 

Postpurchase

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Step 1. 

Consumer Decision Process

Need Recognition

Functional & Psychological Needs

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Step 2.

Consumer Decision Process 

Search for Information 

Internal & External

Factors affecting the Search Process

- The perceived benefits of search

- The locus of control 

- Actual or perceived risk (Performance, Financial, Psychological risks)

- Type of product

- Speciality Good (considerable effort to search)

- Shopping goods (will spend time 
searching)

- Convenience goods (no effort) 

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Step 3.  

Consumer Decision Process 

Evaluation of Alternative

Evaluation criteria - A set of important attributes or evaluative criteria

Attribute Sets

- Universal sets: include all possible choices

- Retrieval Sets: brands/stores brought up from memory

- Evoked Set: brands/stores considered for purchase 

Decision rules

- Compensatory DR: trade off good characteristics against bad characteristics. 

- Noncompensatory DRchoose product  on the basis of a subset of its characteristics.

Decision Heuristics

- Price, Brand, Product presentation, etc

 

 
 

 
 

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Step 4. 

Consumer Decision Process

Purchase

Impulse Purchase 

A buying decision made on the spot 


Habitual Purchase

Purchase decision with little conscious effort.

- Don’t even consider alternatives


Limited problem solving 

- moderate amount of effort and time 

- moderate Risk

- prior experience with the product or service


Extended problem solving 

- huge  Risk (financial, performanc, social)

- a lot of efford searching for information

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Step 5. 

Consumer Decision Process

Postpurchase 

Postpurchse Dissonance

Buyers Remorse

- Negative Word of Mouth

 

Customer Satisfaction/Loyalty

- Build realistic expectations

- Encourage customer feedback

- Provide money back guarantees

- Customer relationship management (CRM)

 

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Factors Influencing the Consumer Decision Process

Psychological Factors

Motive (PSSP Hierarchy)

- Physiological, Safety, Social and Personal needs

Attitude 

- Affective: what we feel 

- Behavioral:  action we undertake

- Cognitive: what we believe to be true

Perception 

- Our perceptual view of the world

Learning 

change in a person’s thought process

Social Factors

- Family

- Reference Groups

- Culture

Situational Factors

- Purchase  Situation

- Shopping Situation

- Temporal State of Mind

... and The Marketing Mix!