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(according to clinician guideline)
Fear is a primitive, automatic, neurophysiological state of alarm involving the cognitive appraisal of imminent threat or danger to the safety&security of an individual.
(according to Clinician Guideline)
Anxiety is a complex cognitive, affective, physiological and behavioral response system (i.e. threatmode) that is activated when anticipated events or circumstances are deemed to be highly aversive because they are perceived to be unpredictable, uncontrollable events that could potentially threaten the vital interests of an individual.
What are the 5 criteria that help distinguish abnormal states of fear & anxiety?
How can you ask for them?
1) Dysfuntional cognition: Is fear or anxiety based on a faulty reasoning about the potential for threat/danger in relevant situations?
2) Impaired functioning: Does the fear/anxiety actually interfere in the person's abilitiy to cope with aversive or difficult circumstances?
3) Persistence: Is the anxiety present over an extended period of time?
4) False Alarms: Does the individual experience false alarms or panic attacks?
5) Stimulus hypersensitivity: Is fear/anxiety activated by a fairly wide range of situations involving relatively mild threat potential?
What is one of the strongest challenges to the categorical perspective of anxiety disorder?
There is a lot of symptom & disorder comorbidity in both anxiety and depression.
What is prognostic comorbidity?
When one disorder predisposes an individual to the development of other disorders.
What are the core features of the DSM-4-TR Anxiety Disorder type 'panic disorder (with/without agoraphobia)'?
Threatening stimulus: physical, bodily sensations
Core appraisal: Fear of dying, losing control/consciousness/further panic attacks
Name the core features of Anx. Dis. 'Generalized anxiety disorder (AD)'.
Threatening stimulus: Stressful life events or other personal concerns
Core appraisal: Fear of possible future adverse/threatening life outcomes
What are the core features of 'Social phobia'?
threatening stimulus: social, public situations
Core appraisal: Fear of negative evaluation from others (e.g. embarrassment, humiliation, ..)