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Erstellt / Aktualisiert 03.08.2021 / 14.08.2021
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Timeline - Evolution of Transportatio

  • freight
  • intercity travel
  • urban travel

freight:

  • steamboat (1800)
  • The Canal Era (1820)
  • Iron Horse (~1830)
  • The Transcontinental Railroad (1860)

intercity:

  • first railline (CH: 1847)
  • Car (late 1800)
  • Electric Railroad (Tram)

Urban Travel

  • Bycicle
  • Car
  • "red car" LA (for public transport)
  • Trams
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Transportation in Cities

- late 1800 - 1950

- Consequences of carownership on City structure

  • Inventions: Bicycle, Tram, motorised Car
  • early 1900: growth in car ownership
  • spread of highway & reduction of pt services

Consequences:

  • Division of places due to highway expansion
  • wider streets
  • infrastructural density
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Transportation Today:

- America

- Switzerland

America:

  • main travel modes: automobile & airplane
    -> 
    urban sprawl
  • bad railway system (nicht gut ausgebaut)

Switzerland:

  • automobile and railway are both important for longer distance travel 
  • non-motorized travel & public transit prominent within most cities
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Difference between Transportation Infrastructure & Policy

Definition: Transportation Infrastructure

- Definition: Transportation Policy

 

=> Transportation is not just physical system (Infrastructure) but also policies

  • Definition: Transportation Infrastructure: vehicles, road,travel way, toll, ...

  • Definition: Transportation Policy: determine how transportation is planned, designed, built, managed, priced & funded

    • governance (who builds, who owns, who maintains)
    • taxes
    • land-use zoning
    • design regulation
    • approach to planning
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Definition of Transportation

  • brings goods to market
  • focus accessability not movement/mobility
  • Transportation = Infrastructure + Policy
    => not just physical system (Infrastructure) but also policies
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Intercity Travel

- Modes

- factors on how the modes differ

- Factors for more train usage in Europe

Modes: Car, Rail, Bus, Air Waterborne

Factors: 

  • Costs (infrastructural & user)
  • Travel Time
  • Comfort
  • Environmental factor

Train usage in Europe

  • faster & better public transit
  • more compact & walkable cities
  • fewer & more expensive parking
  • high fuel taxes
  • goverment suppoert for rail -> reliability
  • better marketing for pt
  • integration of diferent modes (zb train connecting to airport)
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Principle: Marchetti Constant The '30-minute' commute

Most people are willing to commute to work, when it's within 30-min

=> Faster travel has not led to a reduction in travel time

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Modes of urban Transportation

  • Walking, biking (non-motorized)
  • Motorized Roadway modes
    • CarTaxi
    • Bus (Bus Rapid Transit)
    • Micro Modes (E-Bike, Scooters)
  • Fixed Guideway Modes: Train, Trams
  • Others: Water based, Gondel