Lernkarten

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Stufe Grundschule
Erstellt / Aktualisiert 06.06.2021 / 07.07.2021
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1. The Absolute State of the Noun. A Kurdish noun in the absolute state, i.e. without any ending of any kind, gives a generic sense of the noun. It is also the “lexical” form of the noun, i.e. the form in which a noun is given in a vocabulary list or dictionary. The absolute state is normally used for the generic sense, as in قاوه رهشه qâwa rash a ‘coffee is black’.

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2. The Indefinite State. The sign of the indefinite singular (‘a, any, some’) is an unstressed enclitic -(y)èk (i.e. ێک -èk after consonants and یهک -yèk after vowels) added to the end of the absolute singular noun. For example:

pyâw ‘man' --> pyâwèk 'a man'

Among the modifiers that demand that a following noun be indefinite are chand ‘a few', hamû ‘every', chi ‘what?', and har ‘each.'

chand pyâwèk 'a few men'

The construction ...i zor ‘many, a lot of’ also takes a preceding indefinite singular noun: 

kurdèk i zor 'a lot of Kurds '

The indefinite plural is formed by adding -ân to the absolute singular. If the absolute singular ends in -, the indefinite plural ending is -yân. Nouns with absolute singulars ending in -a, like nâma 'letter', form the indefinite plural by dropping the final -a and adding -ân.

pyâw  --> pyâwân '(some) men'

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3. The Definite State. Singular nouns are made definite (‘the’) by adding the suffix -(a)ká (i.e. -aká after consonants, u, e, and , and -ká after the vowels a, â, and o).

pyâw 'man' --> pyâwaká 'the man'

The definite plural is made by adding (a)kân to the singular, i.e. by changing the -(a)ká of the definite singular to -(a)kân.

pyâwaká 'the man' --> pyâwakân 'the men'

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coffee

قاوه‌

qâwa
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قاوهیێک


a coffee
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every coffee

هاموو قاوه‌یێک

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man

پیاو

pyâw
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رۆژ


day
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door

ده‌رگا

dargâ
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نامه


letter
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پیاوێک


a man
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a day

رۆژێک

rozhèk
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ده رگایه ک

a door

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a letter

نامه‌یه‌ک

nâmayèk
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چهند پیاوێک


a few men
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every day

هاموو رۆژێک

hamû rozhèk
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لاپهڕه


page
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what page?

چ لاپه‌ڕه‌یه‌ک

chi lâpařayèk?
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لا

direction
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each direction

هه‌ر لایه‌ک

har lâyèk
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کوردێکی زۆر

a lot of Kurds
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many men

پیاوێکی زۆر

pyâwèk i zor
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پیاوهکه

the man
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American

ئه‌مه‌ریکی

amarîkî
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ئهمهریکیهکه

the American
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student

کتاوی

ktâwî
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کتاویهکه

the student
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village

دێ

de
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دێهکه

the village
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the door

ده‌رگاکا

dargâká