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Describe the cultural dimension of linear vs. flexible and by whom it was developed
Developed by Meyer.
Linear time : Focus on schedules, future and measure time in small units. Flexible time : Emphasis on relationships, present and don't measure time.
Describe the cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term and by whom it was developed
Long-term orientation is when you are focused on the future. You are willing to delay short-term material or social success or even short-term emotional gratification in order to prepare for the future. If you have this cultural perspective, you value persistence, perseverance, saving and being able to adapt.
Short-term orientation is when you are focused on the present or past and consider them more important than the future. If you have a short-term orientation, you value tradition, the current social hierarchy and fulfilling your social obligations. You care more about immediate gratification than long-term fulfillment.
Describe the cultural dimension of low-context vs. high context and by whom it was developed
developed by hall/meyer
People within high-context cultures tend to be more aware and observant of facial expressions, body language, changes in tone, and other aspects of communication that are not directly spoken. Denotation tends to be attributed to low-context culture. People in low-context cultures communicate in a more direct way, with explicitly speaking what they want to communicate.
Describe the cultural dimension of individualism vs.collectivism and by whom it was developed
developed b hofstede T. /H.t.
Individualism indicates that there is a greater importance placed on attaining personal goals. A person’s self-image in this category is defined as “I.”
Collectivism indicates that there is a greater importance placed on the goals and well-being of the group. A person’s self-image in this category is defined as “We”.
Describe the cultural dimension of masculinity vs. femininity and by whom it was developed
developed by hofstede
The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.
Describe the cultural dimension of achievement vs. ascription and by whom it was developed
developed by trompenaars/H.T.
Achievement vs. Ascription In an achievement culture, people are accorded status based on how well they perform their functions. In an ascription culture, status is based on who or what a person is. Does one have to prove himself to receive status or is it given to him? Achievement cultures include the US, Austria, Israel, Switzerland and the UK. Some ascription cultures are Venezuela, Indonesia, and China. When people from an achievement culture do business in an ascription culture it is important to have older, senior members with formal titles and respect should be shown to their counterparts. However, for an ascription culture doing business in an achievement culture, it is important to bring knowledgeable members who can prove to be proficient to other group, and respect should be shown for the knowledge and information of their counterparts
Describe the cultural dimension of task-based vs. relationship-based and by whom it was developed
developed by Meyer
ask-based and Relationship-based. As you can probably guess, the task-based dimension is more about the ‘you do good work consistently, you are reliable, so I trust you’. The second dimension on the other hand is rather the approach of ‘I’ve shared my personal time with you, I like you, I know others who trust you, therefore I trust you’. As much as you can like someone who does the work well and consistently, the trust is not based on your ‘liking’ in case of a Task-based preference. It works the other way around as well – the alone fact, that you do a good work may not be enough for me to trust you if I’m from a Relationship-based culture.
Describe the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance high vs. low and by whom it was developed
Low uncertainty avoidance persons act first and then get information. They are very comfortable with ambiguity and uncertainty. ... High uncertainty avoidance often requires rigid codes of behavior and beliefs. There may easily be intolerance of unorthodox behaviors and ideas.