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Describe the cultural dimension of specific vs. diffuse and by whom it was developed
This dimension refers to how people communicate and interact with one another in their society. Specific cultures are more direct using clear descriptive words, frankness and facts. Germans are known for clear, precise, descriptive language to convey what they want.
Diffuse cultures accept, understand and prefer indirect communication that may carefully use contextual clues to convey understanding. An example of this is the earlier story of the upper class woman conveying through actions that it would not be acceptable for her daughter to marry a boy from a lower class. Japanese would also use diffuse communication especially when trying to say no in a way that allows a person to save face.
Describe the cultural dimension of internal vs. external control and by whom it was developed
developed by tromenaars /H.T.
In an internal direction culture, people believe that they can control their environment to achieve their goals. The focus is selfish (one's self, one's team, and one's organization). ... In an external direction culture, people believe that they must work with their environment to achieve their goals.
Describe the cultural dimension of principles-first vs. applications-first and by whom it was developed
developed by meyer
Application-first: Individuals are trained to begin with a fact, statement, or opinion before adding concepts to back up or explain the conclusion as necessary. Principle-first: Individuals are trained to first develop the theory or complex concept before presenting a fact, statement, or opinion.
Give an example for a country with low-context and with high context communication
Low context to high context
Low-context = good communication is precise, simple and clear. messages are expressed and understood at face value. repetition is appreciated if it helps clarify the communication.
High-context = good communication is sophisticated, nuanced, and layered. Messages are both spoken and read between the lines. Messages are often implied but not plainly expressed.
Give an example for a country with direct negative feedback and indirect negative feedback for evaluating things
direct negative feedback
Indirect negative feedback
Direct negative feedback = negative feedback to a colleague is provided frankly, bluntly, honestly. negative messages stand alone, not softened by positive ones. absolute descriptors are often used (inappropriate, completely unprofessional) when criticizing. criticism may be given to an individual in front of a group.
Indirect negative feedback = negative feedback to a colleague is provided softly, subtly, diplomatically. positive messages are used to wrap negative ones. qualifying descriptors are often used (sort of inappropriate, slightly unprofessional) when criticizing. criticism is given only in private.
Give an example for a country with principles first and with application-first persuading
application-first: individuals are trained to begin with a fact, statement, or opinion and later ad concepts to back up or explain the conclusion as necessary. the preference is to begin a message or report with an executive summary or bullet points. discussions are approached in a practical, concrete manner. theoretical or philosophical discussions are avoided in a business environment.
principles-first: individuals have been trained to first develop the theory or complex concept before presenting a fact, statement, or opinion. the preference is to begin a message or report by building up a theoretical argument before moving on to a conclusion. the conceptual principles underlying each situation are valued.
Give an example for a country with egalitarian and with hierarchical leading
Egalitarian = the ideal distance between a boss and a subordinate is low. the best boss is a facilitator among equals. organizational structures are flat. communication often skips hierarchical lines.
Hierarchical: the ideal distance between a boss and a subordinate is high. the best boss Is a strong director who leads from the front. status is important. organizational structures are multilayered and fixed. communication follows set hierarchical lines.
Give an example for a country with consentual and with top-down deciding
consensual= decisions ar made in groups through unanimous agreement.
top-down = decisions are made by individuals (usually the boss)