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Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of specific vs. diffuse and by whom it was developed

trompenaars/H.T. 

This dimension refers to how people communicate and interact with one another in their society. Specific cultures are more direct using clear descriptive words, frankness and facts. Germans are known for clear, precise, descriptive language to convey what they want.

Diffuse cultures accept, understand and prefer indirect communication that may carefully use contextual clues to convey understanding. An example of this is the earlier story of the upper class woman conveying through actions that it would not be acceptable for her daughter to marry a boy from a lower class. Japanese would also use diffuse communication especially when trying to say no in a way that allows a person to save face.

 

Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of internal vs. external control and by whom it was developed

developed by tromenaars /H.T. 

In an internal direction culture, people believe that they can control their environment to achieve their goals. The focus is selfish (one's self, one's team, and one's organization). ... In an external direction culture, people believe that they must work with their environment to achieve their goals.

Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of principles-first vs. applications-first and by whom it was developed

developed by meyer

Application-first: Individuals are trained to begin with a fact, statement, or opinion before adding concepts to back up or explain the conclusion as necessary. Principle-first: Individuals are trained to first develop the theory or complex concept before presenting a fact, statement, or opinion.

Fenster schliessen

Give an example for a country with low-context and with high context communication

Low context  to high context

  1. US
  2. Australia
  3. Canada
  4. Netherlands
  5. Germany
  6. Switzerland
  7. Denmark
  8. UK
  9. Finland
  10. Poland
  11. Brazil
  12. Argentina
  13. Spain
  14. Mexico
  15. Itali
  16. Peru
  17. France
  18. Russia
  19. Singapore
  20. India
  21. Iran
  22. Saudi Arabia
  23. Kenya
  24. China
  25. Japan
  26. Korea
  27. Indonesia

 

Low-context = good communication is precise, simple and clear. messages are expressed and understood at face value. repetition is appreciated if it helps clarify the communication. 

High-context = good communication is sophisticated, nuanced, and layered. Messages are both spoken and read between the lines. Messages are often implied but not plainly expressed. 

Fenster schliessen

Give an example for a country with direct negative feedback and indirect negative feedback for evaluating things

direct negative feedback

  1. Israel
  2. Netherlands
  3. Russia
  4. germany
  5. france
  6. denmark
  7. norway
  8. italy
  9. australia
  10. spain

Indirect negative feedback

  1. Japan
  2. thailand
  3. indonesia
  4. Saudia Arabia

 

Direct negative feedback = negative feedback to a colleague is provided frankly, bluntly, honestly. negative messages stand alone, not softened by positive ones. absolute descriptors are often used (inappropriate, completely unprofessional) when criticizing. criticism may be given to an individual in front of a group. 

 

Indirect negative feedback = negative feedback to a colleague is provided softly, subtly, diplomatically. positive messages are used to wrap negative ones. qualifying descriptors are often used (sort of inappropriate, slightly unprofessional) when criticizing. criticism is given only in private. 

Fenster schliessen

Give an example for a country with principles first and with application-first persuading

principles first

  1. italy
  2. france
  3. russia
  4. spain

application first

  1. US
  2. canada
  3. australia
  4. uk

application-first: individuals are trained to begin with a fact, statement, or opinion and later ad concepts to back up or explain the conclusion as necessary. the preference is to begin a message or report with an executive summary or bullet points. discussions are approached in a practical, concrete manner. theoretical or philosophical discussions are avoided in a business environment.

principles-first: individuals have been trained to first develop the theory or complex concept before presenting a fact, statement, or opinion. the preference is to begin a message or report by building up a theoretical argument before moving on to a conclusion. the conceptual principles underlying each situation are valued. 

Fenster schliessen

Give an example for a country with egalitarian and with hierarchical leading

Egalitarian

  1. denmark
  2. netherlands
  3. sweden
  4. isral
  5. australia

Hierarchical

  1. Japan
  2. Korea
  3. Nigeria
  4. Arabia
  5. India
  6. China

Egalitarian = the ideal distance between a boss and a subordinate is low. the best boss is a facilitator among equals. organizational structures are flat. communication often skips hierarchical lines.

Hierarchical: the ideal distance between a boss and a subordinate is high. the best boss Is a strong director who leads from the front. status is important. organizational structures are multilayered and fixed. communication follows set hierarchical lines. 

Fenster schliessen

Give an example for a country with consentual and with top-down deciding

consensual

  1. japan
  2. sweden
  3. netherlands
  4. germany

top-down:

  1. nigeria
  2. china
  3. india
  4. russia
  5. italy

consensual= decisions ar made in groups through unanimous agreement.

top-down = decisions are made by individuals (usually the boss)

Fenster schliessen

Give an example for a country with task based and relationship-based trusting

task-based:

  1. us
  2. netherlands
  3. denmark
  4. australia
  5. germany
  6. finland

relationship-based

  1. saudi arabia
  2. india
  3. nigeria
  4. china

 

task-based= trust is built through business-related activities. work relationships are built and dropped easily, based on the practicality of the situation. you do good work consistently, you are reliable, I enjoy working with you, I trust you

 

relationship based= trust is built through sharing meals, evening drinks, and visits ar the coffee machine. work relationships build up slowly over the long term. I've seen who you are at a deep level, I've shared personal time with you, I know others well who trust you, I trust you.

 

Fenster schliessen

Give an example for a country with confrontational and with avoids confrontation disagreeing

confrontational

  1. israel
  2. france
  3. germany
  4. russia
  5. netherlands

avoids confrontation

  1. japan
  2. indonesia
  3. thailand
  4. ghana

 

confrontational = disagreement and debate are positive for the team or organization. open confrontation is appropriate and will not negatively impact the relationship.

avoids confrontation= disagreement and debate are negative for the team or organization. open confrontation is inappropriate and will break group harmony or negatively impact the relationship. 

Fenster schliessen

Give an example for a country with linear-time and with flexible-time scheduling

linear-time

  1. switzerland
  2. germany
  3. japan
  4. sweden
  5. netherlands
  6. denmakr
  7. us

flexible-time

  1. saudi arabia
  2. nigeria
  3. kenya
  4. india

 

linear-time = project steps are approached in a sequential fashion, completing one task before beginning the next. one thing at a time. no interruptions. the focus is on the deadline and sticking to the schedule. emphasis is on promptness and good organization over flexibility.

flexible-time = project steps are approached in a fluid manner, changing tasks as opportunities arise. many things are dealt with at once and interruptions accepted. the focus is on adaptability and flexibility is valued over organization. 

Fenster schliessen

What are the cultural patterns discovered by Edward Hall?

- proxemics

high context versus low context

- monochronic versus polychronic

Fenster schliessen

What are the cultural patterns discovered by Geert Hofstede?

  • individualism vs collectivism
  • masculinity vs feminity
  • power distance (high vs low)
  • uncertainty avoidance (high vs low)
  • long-term vs short-term orientation
  • indulgence vs self-restraint
Fenster schliessen

Give an example for countries with high to low individualism vs collectivism

High individualism

  • US
  • Netherlands
  • Germany
  • France

 

moderate individualism

  • japan
  • russia

low individualism /high collectivism

  • india
  • hong kong
  • indonesia
  • west africa
Fenster schliessen

What are the cultural patterns discovered by Erin Meyer?

  1. communicating (high-context vs. low context)
  2. evaluating (direct vs. indirect feedback)
  3. persuading (principles-first vs. applications-first)
  4. leading(egalitarian vs. hierarchical -> power distance)
  5. deciding(consensual vs. top-dow -> power distance)
  6. trusting(task-based vs. relationship-based -> individualism vs collectivism)
  7. disagreeing(confrontational vs confrontation avoidance)
  8. scheduling(linear vs flexible -> monochronic vs. polychronic)
Fenster schliessen

What is the dimension/measurement for the space category in the cultural dimension and who developed it

Proxemics (close vs. distance) developed by Hall. 

understanding personal space across cultures -> where you stand when you talk to someone is reflexive and varies widely depending on your culture. 

Fenster schliessen

What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category time and by whom are they developed?

  • Monochronic vs. polychronic by Hall
  • sequential vs. synchronic by tromenaars/H.T
  • linear vs. flexible by Meyer
  • Long-term vs. short-term Hofstede
Fenster schliessen

What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category social organization and by whom are they developed?

  • Low-context vs. high context by Hall/Meyer
  • Individualism vs. collectivsm Hofstede T. /H.T.
  • Masculinity vs. femininity by Hofstede
  • Achievement vs. ascription by Trompenaars/H.T.
  • Task-based vs relationship-based by Meyer
Fenster schliessen

What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category social behaviour and by whom are they developed?

  • uncertainty avoidance (high vs. low) by Hofstede
  • Indulgence vs. restraint by Hofstede
  • Neutral vs. emotional by Tromenaars/H.T.
  • Confrontational vs. confrontation avoidance by Meyer
  • Direct vs. indirect feedback by Meyer
Fenster schliessen

What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category power relations and by whom are they developed?

  • power distance (high vs. low) by Hofstede
  • Egalitarianism vs. hierarchical by Meyer
  • Consensual vs. top-down Meyer
Fenster schliessen

What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category concepts/philosophy and by whom are they developed?

  • universalism vs. particularism by Trompenaars/H.T.
  • specific vs. diffuse by Tromenaars/H.T.
  • internal vs. external control by Tromenaars/H.T.
  • principles-first vs. applications-first by Meyer
Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of Monochronic vs. polychronic and by whom it was developed

 Edward T. Hall used the term polychronic to describe the preference for doing several things at once. Conversely, monochronic refers to an individual’s preference to do their activities one by one.

 

People in monochronic cultures such as the U.S. or Germany prefer promptness, careful planning and rigid commitment to plans. They also tend to be task-oriented whereas people from polychronic cultures are people-oriented. Cultures such as Italy or Brazil are considered to be polychronic since they prefer to have multiple things happening at once. Polychronic cultures tend to prioritise relationships over tasks and do not consider time commitments to be binding.

Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of sequential vs. synchronic and by whom it was developed

Developed by trompenhaars/H.T

Sequentia time: People like events to happen in order. They place a high value on punctuality, planning (and sticking to your plans), and staying on schedule. In this culture, "time is money," and people don't appreciate it when their schedule is thrown off.

- focus on one activity or project at a time. 

- be punctual

- keep deadlines

- set clear deadlines

Synchronous time: People see the past, present, and future as interwoven periods. They often work on several projects at once, and view plans and commitments as flexible.

- be flexible in how you approach work.

- allow people to be flexible on tasks and projects, where possible.

- highlight the importance of punctuality and deadlines if these are key to meeting objectives. 

 

typical sequential-time cultures include Germany, u.k. and U.s.

typical synchronous-time cultures include japan, Argentina, and Mexico 

Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of linear vs. flexible and by whom it was developed

Developed by Meyer. 

Linear time : Focus on schedules, future and measure time in small units. Flexible time : Emphasis on relationships, present and don't measure time

Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term and by whom it was developed

Long-term orientation is when you are focused on the future. You are willing to delay short-term material or social success or even short-term emotional gratification in order to prepare for the future. If you have this cultural perspective, you value persistence, perseverance, saving and being able to adapt.

Short-term orientation is when you are focused on the present or past and consider them more important than the future. If you have a short-term orientation, you value tradition, the current social hierarchy and fulfilling your social obligations. You care more about immediate gratification than long-term fulfillment.

Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of low-context vs. high context and by whom it was developed

developed by hall/meyer

People within high-context cultures tend to be more aware and observant of facial expressions, body language, changes in tone, and other aspects of communication that are not directly spoken. Denotation tends to be attributed to low-context culture. People in low-context cultures communicate in a more direct way, with explicitly speaking what they want to communicate.

Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of individualism vs.collectivism and by whom it was developed

developed b hofstede T. /H.t.

  • Individualism indicates that there is a greater importance placed on attaining personal goals. A person’s self-image in this category is defined as “I.”
  • Collectivism indicates that there is a greater importance placed on the goals and well-being of the group. A person’s self-image in this category is defined as “We”.
Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of masculinity vs. femininity and by whom it was developed

developed by hofstede

The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.

Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of achievement vs. ascription and by whom it was developed

developed by trompenaars/H.T. 

Achievement vs. Ascription In an achievement culture, people are accorded status based on how well they perform their functions. In an ascription culture, status is based on who or what a person is. Does one have to prove himself to receive status or is it given to him? Achievement cultures include the US, Austria, Israel, Switzerland and the UK. Some ascription cultures are Venezuela, Indonesia, and China. When people from an achievement culture do business in an ascription culture it is important to have older, senior members with formal titles and respect should be shown to their counterparts. However, for an ascription culture doing business in an achievement culture, it is important to bring knowledgeable members who can prove to be proficient to other group, and respect should be shown for the knowledge and information of their counterparts

Fenster schliessen

Describe the cultural dimension of task-based vs. relationship-based and by whom it was developed

developed by Meyer

ask-based and Relationship-based. As you can probably guess, the task-based dimension is more about the ‘you do good work consistently, you are reliable, so I trust you’. The second dimension on the other hand is rather the approach of ‘I’ve shared my personal time with you, I like you, I know others who trust you, therefore I trust you’. As much as you can like someone who does the work well and consistently, the trust is not based on your ‘liking’ in case of a Task-based preference. It works the other way around as well – the alone fact, that you do a good work may not be enough for me to trust you if I’m from a Relationship-based culture.