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Crée / Actualisé 14.05.2021 / 17.05.2021
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What is the dimension/measurement for the space category in the cultural dimension and who developed it

Proxemics (close vs. distance) developed by Hall. 

understanding personal space across cultures -> where you stand when you talk to someone is reflexive and varies widely depending on your culture. 

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What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category time and by whom are they developed?

  • Monochronic vs. polychronic by Hall
  • sequential vs. synchronic by tromenaars/H.T
  • linear vs. flexible by Meyer
  • Long-term vs. short-term Hofstede
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What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category social organization and by whom are they developed?

  • Low-context vs. high context by Hall/Meyer
  • Individualism vs. collectivsm Hofstede T. /H.T.
  • Masculinity vs. femininity by Hofstede
  • Achievement vs. ascription by Trompenaars/H.T.
  • Task-based vs relationship-based by Meyer
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What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category social behaviour and by whom are they developed?

  • uncertainty avoidance (high vs. low) by Hofstede
  • Indulgence vs. restraint by Hofstede
  • Neutral vs. emotional by Tromenaars/H.T.
  • Confrontational vs. confrontation avoidance by Meyer
  • Direct vs. indirect feedback by Meyer
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What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category power relations and by whom are they developed?

  • power distance (high vs. low) by Hofstede
  • Egalitarianism vs. hierarchical by Meyer
  • Consensual vs. top-down Meyer
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What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category concepts/philosophy and by whom are they developed?

  • universalism vs. particularism by Trompenaars/H.T.
  • specific vs. diffuse by Tromenaars/H.T.
  • internal vs. external control by Tromenaars/H.T.
  • principles-first vs. applications-first by Meyer
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Describe the cultural dimension of Monochronic vs. polychronic and by whom it was developed

 Edward T. Hall used the term polychronic to describe the preference for doing several things at once. Conversely, monochronic refers to an individual’s preference to do their activities one by one.

 

People in monochronic cultures such as the U.S. or Germany prefer promptness, careful planning and rigid commitment to plans. They also tend to be task-oriented whereas people from polychronic cultures are people-oriented. Cultures such as Italy or Brazil are considered to be polychronic since they prefer to have multiple things happening at once. Polychronic cultures tend to prioritise relationships over tasks and do not consider time commitments to be binding.

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Describe the cultural dimension of sequential vs. synchronic and by whom it was developed

Developed by trompenhaars/H.T

Sequentia time: People like events to happen in order. They place a high value on punctuality, planning (and sticking to your plans), and staying on schedule. In this culture, "time is money," and people don't appreciate it when their schedule is thrown off.

- focus on one activity or project at a time. 

- be punctual

- keep deadlines

- set clear deadlines

Synchronous time: People see the past, present, and future as interwoven periods. They often work on several projects at once, and view plans and commitments as flexible.

- be flexible in how you approach work.

- allow people to be flexible on tasks and projects, where possible.

- highlight the importance of punctuality and deadlines if these are key to meeting objectives. 

 

typical sequential-time cultures include Germany, u.k. and U.s.

typical synchronous-time cultures include japan, Argentina, and Mexico 

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Describe the cultural dimension of linear vs. flexible and by whom it was developed

Developed by Meyer. 

Linear time : Focus on schedules, future and measure time in small units. Flexible time : Emphasis on relationships, present and don't measure time

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Describe the cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term and by whom it was developed

Long-term orientation is when you are focused on the future. You are willing to delay short-term material or social success or even short-term emotional gratification in order to prepare for the future. If you have this cultural perspective, you value persistence, perseverance, saving and being able to adapt.

Short-term orientation is when you are focused on the present or past and consider them more important than the future. If you have a short-term orientation, you value tradition, the current social hierarchy and fulfilling your social obligations. You care more about immediate gratification than long-term fulfillment.

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Describe the cultural dimension of low-context vs. high context and by whom it was developed

developed by hall/meyer

People within high-context cultures tend to be more aware and observant of facial expressions, body language, changes in tone, and other aspects of communication that are not directly spoken. Denotation tends to be attributed to low-context culture. People in low-context cultures communicate in a more direct way, with explicitly speaking what they want to communicate.

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Describe the cultural dimension of individualism vs.collectivism and by whom it was developed

developed b hofstede T. /H.t.

  • Individualism indicates that there is a greater importance placed on attaining personal goals. A person’s self-image in this category is defined as “I.”
  • Collectivism indicates that there is a greater importance placed on the goals and well-being of the group. A person’s self-image in this category is defined as “We”.
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Describe the cultural dimension of masculinity vs. femininity and by whom it was developed

developed by hofstede

The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.

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Describe the cultural dimension of achievement vs. ascription and by whom it was developed

developed by trompenaars/H.T. 

Achievement vs. Ascription In an achievement culture, people are accorded status based on how well they perform their functions. In an ascription culture, status is based on who or what a person is. Does one have to prove himself to receive status or is it given to him? Achievement cultures include the US, Austria, Israel, Switzerland and the UK. Some ascription cultures are Venezuela, Indonesia, and China. When people from an achievement culture do business in an ascription culture it is important to have older, senior members with formal titles and respect should be shown to their counterparts. However, for an ascription culture doing business in an achievement culture, it is important to bring knowledgeable members who can prove to be proficient to other group, and respect should be shown for the knowledge and information of their counterparts

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Describe the cultural dimension of task-based vs. relationship-based and by whom it was developed

developed by Meyer

ask-based and Relationship-based. As you can probably guess, the task-based dimension is more about the ‘you do good work consistently, you are reliable, so I trust you’. The second dimension on the other hand is rather the approach of ‘I’ve shared my personal time with you, I like you, I know others who trust you, therefore I trust you’. As much as you can like someone who does the work well and consistently, the trust is not based on your ‘liking’ in case of a Task-based preference. It works the other way around as well – the alone fact, that you do a good work may not be enough for me to trust you if I’m from a Relationship-based culture.

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Describe the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance high vs. low and by whom it was developed

Low uncertainty avoidance persons act first and then get information. They are very comfortable with ambiguity and uncertainty. ... High uncertainty avoidance often requires rigid codes of behavior and beliefs. There may easily be intolerance of unorthodox behaviors and ideas.

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Describe the cultural dimension of indulgence vs. restraint and by whom it was developed

developed by hofstede

Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.

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Describe the cultural dimension of neutral vs. emotional and by whom it was developed

developed by trompenaars/H.T. 

Neutral cultures include Germany, Netherlands, and the U.K. In an affective culture, people tend to share their emotions, even in the workplace. In an affective culture, it considered normal that people share their emotions. Examples of affective cultures include Italy, Spain, and Latin America.

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Describe the cultural dimension of confrontational vs. confrontation avoidance and by whom it was developed

developed by Meyer

The Disagreeing scale of Meyer’s Culture Map again can be shown on a spectrum from Confrontational to Avoids Confrontation. On the confrontational side of the spectrum it’s encouraged to challenge ideas in a team, disagree with others as it’s perceived more as a way to effectively develop ideas and grow, disagreeing is not inappropriate and will not negatively impact relationship. In cultures which are more likely to avoid confrontation the disagreement is perceived as negative for the team or the company, it is inappropriate and will most likely cause damage to the team harmony and relationships within, will be taken more personally, ie. thinking that it’s the person and not idea that is being confronted.

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Describe the cultural dimension of direct vs. indirect feedback and by whom it was developed

developed by meyer

Direct feedback: Negative feedback is provided frankly, bluntly, and honestly without being softened by positive feedback. 
Indirect feedback: Negative feedback is provided softly, subtly, and diplomatically while given within positive feedback.

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Describe the cultural dimension of power distance (high vs low) and by whom it was developed

developed by hofstede

Individuals in cultures demonstrating a high power distance are very deferential to figures of authority and generally accept an unequal distribution of power, while individuals in cultures demonstrating a low power distance readily question authority and expect to participate in decisions that affect them

 

typically country for high to low power distance are

  1. russia
  2. china
  3. india
  4. france
  5. japan
  6. italy
  7. us
  8. canada
  9. australia
  10. germany
  11. uk
  12. switzerland
  13. sweden
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Describe the cultural dimension of egalitarianism vs. hierarchical and by whom it was developed

developed by meyer

In egalitarian societies, distance is narrow. In hierarchical societies, this large power distance means that the person at the top has much more power over his or her subordinates than a comparable status person in an egalitarian society.

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Describe the cultural dimension of consensual vs. top-dow and by whom it was developed

developed by meyer

Consensual: Decisions are made in groups through unanimous agreement. Top-down: Decisions are made by individuals (usually the boss).

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Describe the cultural dimension of universalism vs. particularism and by whom it was developed

development trompenaars/H.T. 

Universalism vsParticularism Universalism is the belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere without modification, while particularism is the belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied.

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Describe the cultural dimension of specific vs. diffuse and by whom it was developed

trompenaars/H.T. 

This dimension refers to how people communicate and interact with one another in their society. Specific cultures are more direct using clear descriptive words, frankness and facts. Germans are known for clear, precise, descriptive language to convey what they want.

Diffuse cultures accept, understand and prefer indirect communication that may carefully use contextual clues to convey understanding. An example of this is the earlier story of the upper class woman conveying through actions that it would not be acceptable for her daughter to marry a boy from a lower class. Japanese would also use diffuse communication especially when trying to say no in a way that allows a person to save face.

 

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Describe the cultural dimension of internal vs. external control and by whom it was developed

developed by tromenaars /H.T. 

In an internal direction culture, people believe that they can control their environment to achieve their goals. The focus is selfish (one's self, one's team, and one's organization). ... In an external direction culture, people believe that they must work with their environment to achieve their goals.

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Describe the cultural dimension of principles-first vs. applications-first and by whom it was developed

developed by meyer

Application-first: Individuals are trained to begin with a fact, statement, or opinion before adding concepts to back up or explain the conclusion as necessary. Principle-first: Individuals are trained to first develop the theory or complex concept before presenting a fact, statement, or opinion.

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Give an example for a country with low-context and with high context communication

Low context  to high context

  1. US
  2. Australia
  3. Canada
  4. Netherlands
  5. Germany
  6. Switzerland
  7. Denmark
  8. UK
  9. Finland
  10. Poland
  11. Brazil
  12. Argentina
  13. Spain
  14. Mexico
  15. Itali
  16. Peru
  17. France
  18. Russia
  19. Singapore
  20. India
  21. Iran
  22. Saudi Arabia
  23. Kenya
  24. China
  25. Japan
  26. Korea
  27. Indonesia

 

Low-context = good communication is precise, simple and clear. messages are expressed and understood at face value. repetition is appreciated if it helps clarify the communication. 

High-context = good communication is sophisticated, nuanced, and layered. Messages are both spoken and read between the lines. Messages are often implied but not plainly expressed. 

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Give an example for a country with direct negative feedback and indirect negative feedback for evaluating things

direct negative feedback

  1. Israel
  2. Netherlands
  3. Russia
  4. germany
  5. france
  6. denmark
  7. norway
  8. italy
  9. australia
  10. spain

Indirect negative feedback

  1. Japan
  2. thailand
  3. indonesia
  4. Saudia Arabia

 

Direct negative feedback = negative feedback to a colleague is provided frankly, bluntly, honestly. negative messages stand alone, not softened by positive ones. absolute descriptors are often used (inappropriate, completely unprofessional) when criticizing. criticism may be given to an individual in front of a group. 

 

Indirect negative feedback = negative feedback to a colleague is provided softly, subtly, diplomatically. positive messages are used to wrap negative ones. qualifying descriptors are often used (sort of inappropriate, slightly unprofessional) when criticizing. criticism is given only in private. 

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Give an example for a country with principles first and with application-first persuading

principles first

  1. italy
  2. france
  3. russia
  4. spain

application first

  1. US
  2. canada
  3. australia
  4. uk

application-first: individuals are trained to begin with a fact, statement, or opinion and later ad concepts to back up or explain the conclusion as necessary. the preference is to begin a message or report with an executive summary or bullet points. discussions are approached in a practical, concrete manner. theoretical or philosophical discussions are avoided in a business environment.

principles-first: individuals have been trained to first develop the theory or complex concept before presenting a fact, statement, or opinion. the preference is to begin a message or report by building up a theoretical argument before moving on to a conclusion. the conceptual principles underlying each situation are valued.