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Crée / Actualisé 14.05.2021 / 17.05.2021
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What is the dimension/measurement for the space category in the cultural dimension and who developed it

Proxemics (close vs. distance) developed by Hall. 

understanding personal space across cultures -> where you stand when you talk to someone is reflexive and varies widely depending on your culture. 

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What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category time and by whom are they developed?

  • Monochronic vs. polychronic by Hall
  • sequential vs. synchronic by tromenaars/H.T
  • linear vs. flexible by Meyer
  • Long-term vs. short-term Hofstede
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What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category social organization and by whom are they developed?

  • Low-context vs. high context by Hall/Meyer
  • Individualism vs. collectivsm Hofstede T. /H.T.
  • Masculinity vs. femininity by Hofstede
  • Achievement vs. ascription by Trompenaars/H.T.
  • Task-based vs relationship-based by Meyer
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What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category social behaviour and by whom are they developed?

  • uncertainty avoidance (high vs. low) by Hofstede
  • Indulgence vs. restraint by Hofstede
  • Neutral vs. emotional by Tromenaars/H.T.
  • Confrontational vs. confrontation avoidance by Meyer
  • Direct vs. indirect feedback by Meyer
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What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category power relations and by whom are they developed?

  • power distance (high vs. low) by Hofstede
  • Egalitarianism vs. hierarchical by Meyer
  • Consensual vs. top-down Meyer
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What are the dimensions and measurements of the cultural dimension category concepts/philosophy and by whom are they developed?

  • universalism vs. particularism by Trompenaars/H.T.
  • specific vs. diffuse by Tromenaars/H.T.
  • internal vs. external control by Tromenaars/H.T.
  • principles-first vs. applications-first by Meyer
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Describe the cultural dimension of Monochronic vs. polychronic and by whom it was developed

 Edward T. Hall used the term polychronic to describe the preference for doing several things at once. Conversely, monochronic refers to an individual’s preference to do their activities one by one.

 

People in monochronic cultures such as the U.S. or Germany prefer promptness, careful planning and rigid commitment to plans. They also tend to be task-oriented whereas people from polychronic cultures are people-oriented. Cultures such as Italy or Brazil are considered to be polychronic since they prefer to have multiple things happening at once. Polychronic cultures tend to prioritise relationships over tasks and do not consider time commitments to be binding.

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Describe the cultural dimension of sequential vs. synchronic and by whom it was developed

Developed by trompenhaars/H.T

Sequentia time: People like events to happen in order. They place a high value on punctuality, planning (and sticking to your plans), and staying on schedule. In this culture, "time is money," and people don't appreciate it when their schedule is thrown off.

- focus on one activity or project at a time. 

- be punctual

- keep deadlines

- set clear deadlines

Synchronous time: People see the past, present, and future as interwoven periods. They often work on several projects at once, and view plans and commitments as flexible.

- be flexible in how you approach work.

- allow people to be flexible on tasks and projects, where possible.

- highlight the importance of punctuality and deadlines if these are key to meeting objectives. 

 

typical sequential-time cultures include Germany, u.k. and U.s.

typical synchronous-time cultures include japan, Argentina, and Mexico