functional gene on one of both chromosome pairs can compensate for mutation on other, e.g.: inherited mutation from mother can be compensated via euivalent gene inherited from father --> loss of function of both genes that will result in cancer
3 phases: initiation, promotion and progression
cancer risk accumulates over time and is therefore higher in aged individuals
may affect all ages though
benign: slow cell multiplication
maligng: invades and destroys surrounding tissues, rapid cell growth
metastasis: affects multiple organs as cancerigenous cells spread throughout body
process requiring lots of time: cell's repair mechanisms (p53) are defect --> mutation is not corrected and persists in daughter-cells --> becomes cancer / malignant as soon as cells multiply and invade other tissues
bad-luck-theroy: cells with high turnover are more susceptible to DNA errors
p53: guardian of the genome
mutated in >50% of cancers --> precancerous cells esacape apoptosis pathways (=quality control)
induces apoptosis if DNA errorr is detected
Cancer and Nutrition, Andersson
what are the most frquenent types of cancer?
How do demographics and socioeconomics affect this?
how do mortality and incidence behave now and in the future?