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When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees – that interpretation is influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver.
Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused.
Fundamental attribution error: Tendency of individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors (e.g. ability or effort), while putting the blame for failure on external factors (e.g. bad luck).
An employee’s performance appraisal is very much dependent on the perceptual process. If subjective measures are taken for the evaluation, this may be problematic because of selective perception, contrast effects, halo effects etc.
What statements are correct according to Decision Making
becomes impaired when we try to create meaning out of random events
Hindsight bias reduces our ability to learn from the past
Confirmation bias: tendency to base judgment on information readily available
People with weak abilities are more likely to overestimate their performance
Relying on experience, impulses, good feelings tec. Easily leads to distortions
Mary is told that a new coworker, John, is unfriendly. She may now act in a more reserved manner around him, refrain from initiating conversations with him, and not include him in activities.
John might the respond to Mary’s standoffish behavior by similarly not initiating conversation or activities with her, thus confirming her expectancy that he is unfriendly.
What’s the name of this perception error on Mary’s side?
Values (GLOBE Studies)
In-group collectivism = extent to which the community accepts and endorses authority, power differences and status privileges
Gender Egalitarianism = The degree to which a collective minimizes gender inequality
Emotions and Moods 1: True or False? Please tick only the correct statements.
Feelings and moods are both emotions
Western women typically have a higher affect intensity (except anger), acc. To various studies
Older people tend to have less negative emotions than younger people
Deep acting on a daily basis may lead to emotional exhaustion
AET says that work events directly influence job satisfaction/performance