Lernkarten

Naomi Charlene
Karten 45 Karten
Lernende 3 Lernende
Sprache English
Stufe Universität
Erstellt / Aktualisiert 10.01.2019 / 06.01.2020
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0 Exakte Antworten 45 Text Antworten 0 Multiple Choice Antworten
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Innovation

 

Specialization and ‘simplification’ of work are essential features of the process of innovation

Innovation is a process that builds upon technical inventions

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Technology and Innovation managemtn

echnology and innovation management is the field of scientific enquiry focused on the analysis of how a socio-technical system of interconnected elements changes over time, whether by emergence or through design, and how such changes can be leveraged to generate value in a sustainable way.

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five technical revolutions

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anderson and tushman, 1990 innovation and industry development

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difference between scientific and technological development

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Why do firms spend money on R&D?

  • Scientific knowledge as an input into invention

    • The linear model: basic research leads to new knowledge, from which technology development can draw

    • Scientific knowledge makes downstream inventive activity more efficient (even without direct benefits)

  • Absorptive capacity (sc. knowledge is publicly available, not usable)

    • Firms need their own scientific knowledge to understand others’ discoveries
    • (including their competitors)
    • Complementarities between internal and public research
  • Attracting talented inventors
    • Staff with a “taste for science”
    • Positive relationship between intellectual challenge and innovative output

  • Signaling to consumers, investors, regulators
    • Publications build a reputation for quality
    • Importance depends on sector (e.g. biotech) and maturity (start-ups)

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modular system design information is partitioning into two parts (Baldwin& Clark) (modularity and integrality)

  • visible design rules (visible information): decisions that affect subsequent design decisions, should be established early in the design process.
    • architecture: what modules are part of the sytem and what is their function
    • interfaces: how will the modules interact
    • sandarts for testing: how can a module's perfomance be measured?
  • hidden design rules (hidden information): do not affect the design beyond the local module, can be changed often and chosen late.
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Models for managing product development (Modularity and Integrality) (Sanchez, Mahoney)

  • Traditional sequential organization
    • recursive information flows, information losses and inefficiencies
    • authorithy hierarchy needed
    • tighly coupled organizational structure
  • Overlapping problem solving approach
    • team based organizational structure
    • reduced information losses
    • still intensive managerial coordination needed, to suceed
    • management needs to have the autority to make design and specification decisions.
  • Modular organization