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Is given if what students learn in one lesson or course prepares them for the next lesson or courses. A purposefully structured and logically sequenced teaching. So that the knowledge and skills are progressively learned and thought.
Is given when content of e.g. a 3rd grade mirrors the content of an other 3rd grade. In addition, the tests and assessments are based on what has been thought to the students and on the learning standards that the students are expected to meet.
CEFR - GER
Common European Framework of Reference
Gemeinsamer Europäischer Referenzrahmen
Seeks to analyze and describe in a comprehensive way language teaching and learning, language use and language performance in all possible contexts. It also explores in detail a wide range of types of assessment (scales, levels, performance indicators etc.)
It also describes the foreign language proficiency at six levels: A1/2 - B1/2 - C1/2
top-down and bottom-up processing
How one analyses/ understands a text or story.
The world (pre-knowledge)
Syllables (spoken) or Morphemes (written)
Top down process is suitable for primary as it begins with the pre-knowledge and doesn’t focus on single words in the beginning.
However, the process isn’t linear, it rather jumps up and down in the process of understanding a text/story.
Implements the cognitive aspect
—> learners learn better if they have to think actively, solve problems etc.
discovery or experiential learning
Trying to make sense of a text by repeating following steps.
reading - searching for clues - making hypothesis - checking hypothesis - producing temporary rule - verifying rule - new hypothesis - reading …
Learners who can set appropriate learning goals and take charge of their own learning.
The way one learns content. Basically one can say that poor learners lack those strategies whereas rich learners have more strategies. It’s the teachers job to develop learning strategies with the pupils.