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Stimulus (stimuli)

All living organisms must be able to detect changes in their environment and respond appropriately. Changes in the environment are called stimuli. A stimulus may be in either the external environment (outside the organism) or the internal environment (inside the organism).


A nerve impulse occurs when the resting potential across the membrane of a neurone has a sufficiently high stimulus. A stimulus is any disturbance in the external or internal environment which changes the potential difference across a membrane.

may be: chemical, thermal / electrical / change in light intensity.

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the ability to respond appropritaley to stimuli, is one of the characteristic featers of life. Each organism has its own sepcific type of sensitivity that imporves its chances of survival.

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sense organs

In large multicellular animals such as mammals, stimuli are detected in sense organs.

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Body part or cell that reacts to a stimulus in a particular way, or a cell substance in the body that produces an effect. p. ex. In a reflex the effector muscle acts before your brain is able to think.


and organs tat respond to sttimuli are called effectors.

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What do the interconnections form?

The interconnections form circuits which enable us to control our muscles, think, remember and even sturd our own brains.

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In mammals there are two major systems that convey information:

the nervous system and the endocrine system. Both involve cell signaling.

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All animal nervous systems are fast-acting communication systems containing nerve cells, (name?)

neurones, which convey information as nerve impulses (electrochemical signals)

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Neurons take various forms but each has ?

a cell body, containing a nucles, and nerve fibres, long extensions that transmit nerve impulses rapidly from one part of the body to another.