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Fenster schliessen

The optic system of the eye consists of

uvea, sclera, retina

cornea, lens, vitreous humor

retina, optic nerve, blind spot

rods, cones, fovea centralis

Fenster schliessen

The three coats of the eye are

cornea, lens, vitreous humor

ciliary body, iris, pupil

sclera, uvea, retina

optic nerve, retina, blind spot

Fenster schliessen

Shortsightedness means

subjects start later with presbyopia than usual

the eyeball is virtually too short

subjects need a convex lens for correction

subjects need a combination of spherical and cylindrical lenses for correction

Fenster schliessen

The onset of presbyopia depends

on the degeneration of the vitreous humor

only on age

on age and weather the subjects is shortsighted, farsighted, or normal sighted

on the degeneration of the retina

Fenster schliessen

The following statements are true except

cones are responsible for night vision and are most densely in the fovea centralis

rods are responsible for night vision and have a poor ability to discriminate

cones are most densely in the fovea centralis and have a one-to-one connection to the brain

rods are responsible for ambient vision and are in groups connected to the brain

Fenster schliessen

Color vision is performed by three different classes of cones:

yellow, blue, red

green, blue, yellow

red, yellow, blue

red, green, blue

Fenster schliessen

The normal visual acuity allows discrimination of two different points under an angle of

1 degree of arc

1 minute of arc

10 minutes of arc

1 second of arc

Fenster schliessen

Which one of the following statements is correct regarding the use of cockpit lighting for night flight?

Reducing the light intensity to a minimum level will eliminate blind spots

Coloration shown on maps is least affected by the use of direct red lighting

Cockpit lighting may only be used during short intervals to protect the light adaption

The use of regular white light, such as flashlight, will impair night adaption

Fenster schliessen

If the pilot of an aircraft approaches a runway that is wider than normal, one of the possible consequences could be that:

He would choose a visual touch down point too far into the runway

He would flare at a too low altitude

The aircraft would touch down after he expects to

He would touch down with excess speed

Fenster schliessen

Below are four statements about rods and cones. Which one is true?

Cones give the best visual acuity

Rods are sensitive to color and small details

Rods are concentrated around the fovea

Cones are effective in both daylight and darkness

Fenster schliessen

Visual acuity is best within ….. degrees of the fovea and reduces ….. towards the periphery of vision:

20, rapidly

2-3, rapidly

20, gradually

2-3, gradually

Fenster schliessen

The part of the eye that bends the light the most is:

fluid in the eye

the iris

the lens

the cornea

Fenster schliessen

If runway slopes downwards, what is a pilot is likely to do:

make an approach with too low speed

land short

make a shallow approach

land long

Fenster schliessen

A sloping cloud formation, an obscured horizon and a dark scene spread with ground lights and stars can create an illusion

known as:

False horizon

Coriolis illusion


Elevator illusion

Fenster schliessen

Suppose you make an approach to a runway which is narrower than standard. Which of the following errors are you likely to commit?

Initiate a flare too early

Initiate a flare too late

Not following the VASIS

Fly with a too high approach speed, as a narrow runway requires lower speed

Fenster schliessen

What should a pilot do to keep his night vision (scotopic vision)?

Avoid food containing high amounts of vitamin A

Not smoke before start and during flight and avoid flash-blindness

Wait at least 60 minutes to night-adapt before he takes off

Select meals with high contents of vitamin B and C

Fenster schliessen

Why should a pilot turn his attention to the instruments when approaching on a snowed up, foggy or cloudy winterday? Because

perception of distance and speed is difficult in an environment of low contrast

his attention will be distracted automatically under these conditions

the danger of a "greying out" will make it impossible to determine the height above the terrain

pressure differences can cause the altimeter to give wrong information

Fenster schliessen

Illuminated anti-collision lights in IMC

will effect the pilots binocular vision

can cause colour-illusions

will improve the pilots depth perception

can cause disorientation

Fenster schliessen

A shining light is fading out (i. e. when flying into fog, dust or haze). What kind of sensation could the pilot get?

The light source will make the pilot believe, that he is climbing

The source of light stands still

The source of light is approaching him with increasing speed

The source of light moves away from him

Fenster schliessen

To prevent the "autokinetic phenomena", the following can be done:

look sideways to the source of light for better fixation

fixate the source of light, first with one eye, then with the other

look out for additional references inside and/or outside the cockpit using peripheral vision also

turn down cabin light and shake head simultaneously

Fenster schliessen

Autokinesis is

the automatical adjustment of the crystalline lens to objects situated at different distances

the phenomenon of spinning lights after the abuse of alcohol

the change in diameter of the pupil, when looking in the dark

the apparent movement of a static single light when stared at for a relatively long period of time in the dark

Fenster schliessen

A pilot is used to land on small and narrow runways only. Approaching a larger and wider runway can lead to :

a flatter than normal approach with the risk of "ducking under"

a steeper than normal approach dropping low

an early or high "round out"

the risk to land short of the overrun

Fenster schliessen

The impression of an apparent movement of light when stared at for a relatively long period of time in the dark is called

"oculografic illusion"

"white out"

"oculogyral illusion"


Fenster schliessen

The time for dark adaptation is

10 min

10 sec

1/10 sec

30 min

Fenster schliessen

Which problem may occur, when flying in an environment of low contrast (fog, snow, darkness, haze)?

Under these conditions it is:

difficult to estimate the correct speed and size of approaching objects

impossible to detect objects

no problem to estimate the correct speed and size of approaching objects

improbable to get visual illusions

Fenster schliessen

A pilot approaching an upslope runway

is performing a steeper than normal approach, landing long

may feel that he is higher than actual. This illusion may cause him to land short.

establishes a higher than normal approach speed

establishes a slower than normal approach speed with the risk of stalling out

Fenster schliessen

The area in front of a threshold descends towards the threshold.

Possible danger is:

approach is lower than normal and may result in a short landing

to drop far below the glide path

approach is higher than normal and may result in a long landing

to misjudge the length of the runway

Fenster schliessen

Sunglasses with variable filtration (phototrope glasses)

are advantageous for pilots

are generally forbidden for pilots

are ideal, as long as there are no polarisation effects

can have disadvantages when used in the cockpit due to their dependence on ultraviolet light which is screened by the cockpit glass

Fenster schliessen

What misjudgement may occur if an airplane is flying into fog, snow or haze?

Objects will appear closer than they really are

Objects seem to be farther away than in reality

Objects will appear bigger in size than in reality

Objects seem to move slower than in reality

Fenster schliessen

Depth perception when objects are close (< 1 m) is achieved through

the "blind spot" at the retina

good visibility only

visual memory only

seeing with two eyes (binocular vision)