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0 Exakte Antworten 0 Text Antworten 84 Multiple Choice Antworten
Fenster schliessen

What should a pilot do to keep his night vision (scotopic vision)?

Avoid food containing high amounts of vitamin A

Not smoke before start and during flight and avoid flash-blindness

Wait at least 60 minutes to night-adapt before he takes off

Select meals with high contents of vitamin B and C

Fenster schliessen

Why should a pilot turn his attention to the instruments when approaching on a snowed up, foggy or cloudy winterday? Because

perception of distance and speed is difficult in an environment of low contrast

his attention will be distracted automatically under these conditions

the danger of a "greying out" will make it impossible to determine the height above the terrain

pressure differences can cause the altimeter to give wrong information

Fenster schliessen

Illuminated anti-collision lights in IMC

will effect the pilots binocular vision

can cause colour-illusions

will improve the pilots depth perception

can cause disorientation

Fenster schliessen

A shining light is fading out (i. e. when flying into fog, dust or haze). What kind of sensation could the pilot get?

The light source will make the pilot believe, that he is climbing

The source of light stands still

The source of light is approaching him with increasing speed

The source of light moves away from him

Fenster schliessen

To prevent the "autokinetic phenomena", the following can be done:

look sideways to the source of light for better fixation

fixate the source of light, first with one eye, then with the other

look out for additional references inside and/or outside the cockpit using peripheral vision also

turn down cabin light and shake head simultaneously

Fenster schliessen

Autokinesis is

the automatical adjustment of the crystalline lens to objects situated at different distances

the phenomenon of spinning lights after the abuse of alcohol

the change in diameter of the pupil, when looking in the dark

the apparent movement of a static single light when stared at for a relatively long period of time in the dark

Fenster schliessen

A pilot is used to land on small and narrow runways only. Approaching a larger and wider runway can lead to :

a flatter than normal approach with the risk of "ducking under"

a steeper than normal approach dropping low

an early or high "round out"

the risk to land short of the overrun

Fenster schliessen

The impression of an apparent movement of light when stared at for a relatively long period of time in the dark is called

"oculografic illusion"

"white out"

"oculogyral illusion"

"autokinesis"

Fenster schliessen

The time for dark adaptation is

10 min

10 sec

1/10 sec

30 min

Fenster schliessen

Which problem may occur, when flying in an environment of low contrast (fog, snow, darkness, haze)?

Under these conditions it is:

difficult to estimate the correct speed and size of approaching objects

impossible to detect objects

no problem to estimate the correct speed and size of approaching objects

improbable to get visual illusions

Fenster schliessen

A pilot approaching an upslope runway

is performing a steeper than normal approach, landing long

may feel that he is higher than actual. This illusion may cause him to land short.

establishes a higher than normal approach speed

establishes a slower than normal approach speed with the risk of stalling out

Fenster schliessen

The area in front of a threshold descends towards the threshold.

Possible danger is:

approach is lower than normal and may result in a short landing

to drop far below the glide path

approach is higher than normal and may result in a long landing

to misjudge the length of the runway

Fenster schliessen

Sunglasses with variable filtration (phototrope glasses)

are advantageous for pilots

are generally forbidden for pilots

are ideal, as long as there are no polarisation effects

can have disadvantages when used in the cockpit due to their dependence on ultraviolet light which is screened by the cockpit glass

Fenster schliessen

What misjudgement may occur if an airplane is flying into fog, snow or haze?

Objects will appear closer than they really are

Objects seem to be farther away than in reality

Objects will appear bigger in size than in reality

Objects seem to move slower than in reality

Fenster schliessen

Depth perception when objects are close (< 1 m) is achieved through

the "blind spot" at the retina

good visibility only

visual memory only

seeing with two eyes (binocular vision)

Fenster schliessen

Adaptation is

the change of the diameter of the pupil

the adjustment of the eyes to high or low levels of illumination

the reflection of the light at the cornea

the adjustment of the crystalline lens to focus light on the retina

Fenster schliessen

The time required for complete adaptation is

for day and night: 30 min

for high levels of illumination 10 minutes and for low levels of illumination 30 minutes

for high levels of illumination 10 sec and for full dark adaptation 30 min

for night 10 sec and for day 30 min

Fenster schliessen

The requirement of good sunglasses is to

eliminate distortion in aircraft windshields

fit to the pilots individual taste

absorb enough visible light to eliminate glare without decreasing visual acuity, absorb UV and IR radiation and absorb all colors equally

increase the time for dark adaptation

Fenster schliessen

Why does a deficiency in vitamin A cause night-blindness?

Vitamin A deficiency interrupts the oxygen supply to the photosensitive cells

Accomodation is destroyed

Vitamin A is essential to the regeneration of visual purple

The transfer of light stimulus from the rods to a nerve impulse depends on vitamin A

Fenster schliessen

Scanning at night should be performed by:

avoiding food containing Vitamin A

scanning with one eye open

concentrated fixation on an object (image must fall on the fovea centralis)

slight eye movements to the side of the object

Fenster schliessen

Approaches at night without visual references on the ground and no landing aids (e.g. VASIS) can make the pilot believe of beeing

higher than actual altitude with the risk of overshooting

higher than actual altitude with the risk of landing short ("ducking under")

lower than actual altitude with the risk of overshooting

lower than actual altitude with the risk of ducking under

Fenster schliessen

A pilot is used to land on wide runways only. When approaching a smaller and/or narrower runway, the pilot may feel he is at a

greater height and the impression of landing short

lower than actual height with the tendency to overshoot

greater height than he actually is with the tendency to land short

lower height and the impression of landing slow

Fenster schliessen

Flickering light when reflected from spinning rotor blades

can cause spatial disorientation and/or nausea, when looked at for a longer period of time

can be neglected

can be avoided when the strobe-lights are switched on

should be avoided, because it may destroy the optical nerve

Fenster schliessen

A pilot approaching a runway which is narrower than normal may feel he is at a greater height than he actually is. To compensate he may fly a

higher than normal approach with the tendency to overshoot

compensatory glide path and land long

compensatory glide path and stall out

flatter than normal approach with the tendency to undershoot

Fenster schliessen

What impression do you have when outside references are fading away (e.g. fog, darkness, snow and vapor)?

Objects seem to be much bigger than in reality

Objects seem to be closer than in reality

It is difficult to determine the size and speed of objects

There is no difference compared with flying on a clear and sunny day

Fenster schliessen

Hypoxia will effect night vision

at 5000 FT

less than day vision

and causes the autokinetic phenomena

and causes hyperventilation

Fenster schliessen

The effect of hypoxia to vision

can only be detected when smoking tobacco

is usual stronger with the cones

is stronger with the rods

does not depend on the level of illumination

Fenster schliessen

What does not impair the function of the photosensitive cells?

Toxic influence (alcohol, nicotine, medication)

Oxygen deficiency

Acceleration

Fast speed

Fenster schliessen

The fovea centralis is

the area of best day vision and best night vision

the area of the blind spot (optic disc)

where the optic nerves come together with the pupil

the area of best day vision and no night vision at all

Fenster schliessen

The retina of the eye

only regulates the light that falls into the eye

filters the UV-light

is the muscle, changing the size of the crystalline lens

is the light-sensitive inner lining of the eye containing the photoreceptors essential for vision