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14 Exakte Antworten 11 Text Antworten 426 Multiple Choice Antworten
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7. Which of the following statements is false:

A. P wave of electrocardiogram depicts depolarization of atria

B. P wave should be negative (downward directed) and T wave should be positive (upward directed) in aVR lead

C. T wave reflects repolarization of ventricles

D. T wave amplitude can be influenced by potassium level in blood

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8. According to Frank-Starling law, increase in left ventricular filling during diastole will:

A. Increase the volume and decrease contraction force of left ventricle

B. Increase the volume and contraction force of left ventricle, but have no impact on stroke volume

C. decrease the volume of left ventricle and increase stroke volume

D. increase the volume of left ventricle, potentiate myocardial fibers and increase stroke volume

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13. Which agents are involved in maintaining homeostasis if blood volume is significantly decreased?
 

A. Adrenalin and thyroxin

B. Aldosterone and oxytocin

C. Corticosteroids and renin

D. Aldosterone and vasopressin

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18. Name 5 factors which cause the movement of blood in veins:

A. Pressure gradient in the venous system, quantity of circulatory blood, tone of vessels, viscosity of blood, resistance in vessels

B. Pressure gradient in the venous system, negative pressure in a thoracic cavity, contractions of skeletal muscles, diaphragm contractions, contraction of walls of veins

C. Negative pressure in a thorax, diaphragm contractions, difference of pressure, valves of veins, contraction of skeletal muscles

D. Pressure gradient, valves of veins, contraction of skeletal muscles, stroke volume, blood viscosity

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20. Assuming that systolic blood pressure equals 130 mmHg,diastolic blood pressure equals 70mmHg, mean arterial pressure is:

A. 110mmHg

B. 100mmHg

C. 90mmHg

D. 80mmHg

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21. Factors favoring capillary filtration are:

A. High colloid osmotic pressure of capillary blood

B. High hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

C. high hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid

D. all answers are correct

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22. Assuming that stroke volume and heart rate remains constant, increased total peripheral resistance (TPR) will result in:

A. Increased mean arterial pressure

B. Decreased mean arterial pressure

C. Unaltered mean arterial pressure (TPR does not affect mean arterial pressure)

D. Lower blood pressure in the arterial system and higher blood pressure in the venous system

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  1. What are two effects of angiotensin II?

a. Is a vasodilator and therefore raises blood pressure in the body ́s arterioles, it stimulates the cells of the adrenal cortex to release the hormone vasopressin

b. Is a vasoconstrictor and therefore raises blood pressure in the veins, it stimulates the cells of the adrenal cortex to release the hormone renin

c. Is a vasoconstrictor and therefore raises blood pressure in the body ́s arterioles, it stimulates the cells of the adrenal cortex to release the hormone aldosterone

d. Is a vasoconstrictor and therefore raises blood pressure in the body ́s arterioles, it the cells of the adrenal medulla to release the hormone aldosterone

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  1. The beta-receptors stimulation in heart causes:

a. Dilation of coronary vessels

b. Decrease in heart rate

c. Increase in heart rate

d. A and c are true

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  1. The difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressures is called the

a. Pulse pressure

b. Systemic pressure

c. Mean arterial pressure

d. Blood pressure

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  1. All the following statements concerning the conduction system of the heart are true EXCEPT that the:

a. Purkinje fibers spread the wave of depolarization to some contractile cells

b. Sino atrial node is located at the junction of the right atrium and superior vena cava

c. Pacemaker is located at the sinoatrial node

d. Bundle of His is located at the atrioventricular septum

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  1. List the three factors which assist in returning blood to the heart

a. Cardiac output, muscular pump, respiratory pump

b. Venous valves ,muscular pump, respiratory pump

c. Cardiac output, venous valves, respiratory pump

d. Heart rate,cardiac output, venous valves

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  1. Cardiac output is equal to:

a. HR/SV

b. EDV-ESV

c. HRxSV

d. HRxBP

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  1. Depolarization in autorhythmic cells of the heart begin when:

a. The slow calcium channels open

b. The fast calcium channels open

c. The fast sodium channels open

d. A and B are correct

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  1. Blood flow in coronary arteries is biggest:

a. During systole and diastole

b. During diastole

c. Is not dependent of phase of heart cycle

d. During systole

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  1. Recording speed is 25 mm/s, R-R interval is 20 mm. What is the heart rate?

a. 75bpm

b. 100bpm

c. 50 bpm

d. 175bpm

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15.Which of the following is not a method of Calcium removal follwoing contraction of heart muscles

a. NA-CA xchange transports CA out of the cell

b. ATP dependant CA Pumps move CA from the cytoplasm into the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

c. CA passivly diffuses out of the cell

d. ATP dependant sarcolemmal CA pumps remove CA from the cell

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18.Which of the following is false regarding the action of catocholamines on B adrenergic receptors

a. dilate blood vessels in S.M

b. increase the contractility of cardiac M

c. Increase cardiac output

d. increase the rate of discharge of SA node

e. Constrict coronary arteries

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10.Dilation of the peripheral atrial blood vessels can be caused by

a. N.O

b. Thromboxane A2

c. Angiotensin 2

d. endothelin

e. kenin

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11. Which of the following is incorrectly paired

a. increased PCO2 = pulmonart vasoconstr

b. stim of vagus N. in the neck =Bradycardia

c. Prostocyclin = Vasodil.

d. Increase H concentration in tissue = Vasocontrs. in tissue

e. A and D

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12. Which statement is incorrect

a. Renin secr. is inhibited by distension of cardiac atria

b. ANH inhibits the NA reabsorption in the medullary part of collecting duct

c. ACE is located in pulmonary vessels

d. Secr. of Renin increases in response to prolonged low dietry salt intake

e. the glomerular filtration rate can be determined by inulin and creatinine

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10. Severe human body dehydration will activate secretion of:

a) aldosterone, vasopressin, adrenalin, prolactin

b) only aldosterone

c) aldosterone, vasopressin, adrenalin, angiotensin I

d) aldosterone, vasopressin, adrenalin, angiotensin I and II

e) endothelin and oxytocin

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Anaemia is manifested by:

a) Increased level hemoglobin

b) Decreased level of hemoglobin and lowered red blood count

c) Unchanged level of methemoglobin

d) Answer a and c are correct

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Hemolysis is associated with:

a) Increased agglutionation of leukocytes and erythrocytes

b) Decreased synthesis of erythrocytes by bone barrow

c) Disintegration of erythrocytes by macrophages

d) Disruption of erythrocyte membrane by chemical compounds, toxins

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Dehydration of human body (water depletion) will cause:

a) Increase in hematocrit

b) Decrease in hematocrit

c) Decrease in hematocrit and erythrocyte count

d) None of the aforementioned answers is correct

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Beta receptors are mainly located in:

a) heart and bronchi

b) kidneys – this is correct as well!

c) brain and bronchi

d) alimentary tract

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11. Which of the following mechanisms influence the peripheral vessel resistance:

A. Vasoactive nerves

B. Humoral factors like NO, noradrenaline

C. Renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system

D. All the answers are correct

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12. The distance from the beginning of QRS complex to termination of T wave in electrocardiographic chart (ECG) is named:

A. ST segment

B. QRS-T segment

C. T segment

D. QT segment

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13. In ECG chart P wave indicates at:

 

A. Ventricular contraction

B. Atrial contraction

C. Ventricular repolarization

D. None of the answers are correct

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14. The pulse velocity (rate at which arterial vessel pulse propagates) depends on:

A. Blood pressure

B. Elasticity of arterial vessels

C. Answer A and B is correct

D. None of the answers is correct