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14 Exakte Antworten 11 Text Antworten 426 Multiple Choice Antworten
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19)  The expiratory neurons control the ________ muscles, whereas the inspiratory neurons control the 19) ________ muscles.

A) abdominal and internal intercostal, diaphragm and external intercostal

B) diaphragm and external intercostal, abdominal and internal intercostal

C) abdominal and external intercostal, diaphragm and internal intercostal

D) diaphragm and internal intercostal, abdominal and external intercostal

E) diaphragm and abdominal, intercostal internal and external

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21) The Hering-Breuer reflex

A) alters pulmonary ventilation when the PCO2 changes.

B) functions to increase ventilation with changes in blood pressure.

C) alters pulmonary ventilation when the PO2 changes.

D) is an important aspect of normal, quiet breathing.

E) prevents overexpansion of the lungs.

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58)  Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to

A) decrease the alveolar ventilation rate.

B) decrease the temperature of the plasma.

C) increase the rate of plasma flow through the lungs.

D) decrease the partial pressure of nitrogen.

E) increase the partial pressure of oxygen.

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57)  Jill lives in St. Louis, which is close to sea level. She decides to spend a month of her summer vacation working in the mountains outside of Denver. After a week in the mountains, what kinds of changes would you expect to see as Jill adapts to the higher altitude?

A) decreased alveolar ventilation rate

B) decreased blood pressure

C) decreased PO2 in the alveoli

D) decreased hematocrit

E) All of the answers are correct.

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60)  A student in your lab volunteers to enter a hypoxic breathing chamber for 10 minutes, and his alveolar PO2 drops to 50 mm Hg. What other change would occur?

A) increase in alveolar PCO2

B) decrease in arterial pH

C) decrease in arterial PCO2

D) decrease in pH of cerebrospinal fluid

E) hypoventilation

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61)  A molecule that blocks the activity of carbonic anhydrase would

A) cause an increase in blood pH.

B) increase the amount of bicarbonate formed in the blood.

C) decrease the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the plasma.

D) interfere with oxygen binding to hemoglobin.

E) All of the answers are correct.

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62) The chloride shift occurs when

A) hydrogen ions leave the red blood cells.

B) bicarbonate ions enter the red blood cells.

C) hydrogen ions enter the red blood cells.

D) carbonic acid is formed.

E) bicarbonate ions leave the red blood cells.

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63) Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to all EXCEPT which of the
following?

A) changes in PCO2

B) changes in pH due to carbon dioxide levels

C) changes in blood pressure

D) changes in PO2

E) All of the answers are correct.

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5) Which organ is NOT known to include a special portal system for blood?

A) brain

B) kidney

C) liver

D) heart

E) All of these organs have portal systems.

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6) Which artery/arteries branch(es) is/are most proximal to the beginning of the aorta at the heart?

A) pulmonary

B) renal

C) carotid

D) coronary

E) hepatic

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9)  Which of the following statements about hydrostatic pressure is NOT true?

A) Force is not equal in all directions.

B) The lateral pressure component of moving fluid represents the hydrostatic pressure.

C) If a fluid is not moving, the pressure that it exerts is called hydrostatic pressure

D) Hydrostatic pressure does not include the dynamic component of a moving fluid.

E) All of the statements are true.

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10)  Each of the following changes will result in increased blood flow to a tissue EXCEPT one. Identify the exception.

A) decreased peripheral resistance

B) increased blood volume

C) relaxation of precapillary sphincters

D) decreased vessel diameter

E) increased blood pressure

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21) The action potential in a cardiac contractile cell causes

A) activation of NCX transporters.

B) opening of L-type calcium channels.

C) activation of sodium-potassium ATPase.

D) opening of HCN channels.

E) opening of ryanodine receptor calcium channels.

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22)  Stretching a myocardial cell

A) only decreases the force of a contraction.

B) only increases the force of contraction.

C) only allows more Ca2+ to enter

D) decreases the force of a contraction and allows more Ca2+ to enter.

E) allows more Ca2+ to enter and increases the force of a contraction.

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23)  The rapid depolarization phase of the action potentials of myocardial contractile cells is due to  which ion(s)?

A) Na+ only

B) Ca2+ only

C) K+ only

D) both Ca2+ and K+

E) both Na+ and K+

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24)  During the plateau phase of the action potentials of myocardial contractile cells, which ion(s) is/are crossing the membrane?

A) K+ only

B) Ca2+ only

C) Na+ only

D) both Ca2+ and K+

E) both Na+ and K+

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28)  A typical action potential of a myocardial contractile cell lasts ________ millisecond(s).

 

of autorhythmic cells is = at least 150+msec

of skeletal muscle cells = 1-2msec

A) 1-5

B) at least 200

C) at least 500

D) 50-100

E) less than 1

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31) If channels are permeable to

A) Na+ only.

B) Ca2+ only.

C) K+ only.

D) Na+ and K+.

E) Ca2+ and K+.

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34) The fibrous skeleton of the heart is important because it

A) forces electrical activity to be conducted through the atrioventricular node.

B) helps guide the blood into the proper chambers in sequence.

C) directs the flow of blood into the arteries.

D) transmits electrical activity from the atria to the ventricles.

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37) In the condition known as complete heart block, what happens?

A) The mitral valve leaflets calcify and close, preventing blood from being pumped efficiently by the left side of the heart.

B) Blood flow through the foramen ovale is blocked.

C) Electrical signals from the SA node never reach the ventricles, so the contraction of the atria is not coordinated with the contraction of the ventricles.

D) The fibrous skeleton of the heart breaks down, interfering with the passage of blood from the atria to the ventricles.

E) Coronary arteries are blocked by plaques, preventing blood and oxygen from reaching the myocardial contractile cells.

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38) When the heart is in fibrillation

A) effective pumping of the ventricles ceases because the myocardial cells fail to work as a team, and the brain cannot get adequate oxygen.

B) the myocardial cells are contracting together as they should; fibrillation indicates a normal sinus rhythm of 75 beats per minute.

C) the myocardial cells may become damaged from contracting too fast.

D) the myocardial cells deplete their oxygen supply because they are contracting too fast, and the lactic acid produced damages the myocardial cells.

E) there is no contraction of the myocardium.

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39) Electrical shock to the heart is usually used to treat

A) atrial fibrillation.

B) heart murmur.

C) myocardial infarction.

D) heart block.

E) ventricular fibrillation.

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44) Ventricular contraction

A) begins just after the T wave.

B) begins just after the Q wave.

C) begins during the latter part of the P wave.

D) begins during the first part of the P wave.

E) None of the answers are correct.

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45) Atrial contraction

A) begins during the first part of the P wave.

B) begins just after the Q wave.

C) begins during the latter part of the P wave.

D) begins just after the T wave.

E) None of the answers are correct.

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52)  During ventricular systole,

A) the AV valves are closed.

B) the ventricles are relaxed.

C) blood is entering the ventricles

D) the pressure in the ventricles declines.

E) the atria are contracting

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58) Epinephrine and norepinephrine increase ion flow through ________ channels.

A) Ca2+ only

B) Na+ only

C) K+ only

D) If only

E) If and Ca2+

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59) According to Starling's law of the heart, the cardiac output is directly related to the

A) end-systolic volume.

B) size of the ventricle.

C) venous return.

D) heart rate.

E) thickness of the myocardium.

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60) Which of these will increase the heart rate?

A) only the application of epinephrine to the SA node

B) only the application of acetylcholine to the SA node

C) only sympathetic stimulation to the SA node

D) both sympathetic stimulation and application of epinephrine to the SA node

E) both sympathetic stimulation and application of acetylcholine to the SA node

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61) Stimulation of the beta receptors on heart muscle results in

A) decreased force of cardiac contraction.

B) decreased rate of contraction.

C) the formation of cAMP.

D) increased sensitivity to acetylcholine.

E) All of the answers are correct.

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62) Drugs known as beta blockers will

A) increase stroke volume.

B) decrease the end-systolic volume.

C) decrease heart rate.

D) increase cardiac output.

E) increase heart rate.