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14 Exakte Antworten 11 Text Antworten 426 Multiple Choice Antworten

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1. A cross-sectional view of a skeletal muscle fiber through the H zone would the presence of what?

A. Actin but no myosin.

B. Actin and myosin.

C. Myosin but no actin.

D. Actin,myosin,and titin.

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1. In normal, healthy muscle, what occurs as a result of propagation of an action potential to the terminal membrane of a motor neuron?

 

A. Depolarization of the T tubule membranes follows.

B. Always results in muscle contraction.

C. Increase in intracellular Ca++ concentration in the motor neuron terminal.

D. All of the above are correct.

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1. In what way does visceral smooth muscle differ from skeletal muscle?

A. Visceral smooth muscle can contract in response to stretch.

B. Visceral smooth muscle is capable of generating only about half the maximal force of contraction

C. Contraction of visceral smooth muscle is ATP dependent.

D. The rate of cross-bridge cycling in visceral smooth muscle is approximately 100 times faster than that in skeletal muscle.

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1. Which of the following statements about smooth muscle contraction is most accurate?

A. It requires more energy than skeletal muscle contraction.

B. It can occur without the generation of an action potential.

C. It is shorter in duration than skeletal muscle.

D. It is Ca++ independent.

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1. Skeletal muscle contraction is terminated by which action?

A. Removal of acetylcholine from the neuromuscular junction.

B. Removal of Ca++ from the terminal of the motor neuron.

C. Closure of the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

D. Removal of sarcoplasmic Ca++.

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1. Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle involves all of the following events except one. Which one is not involved?

A. Increase in the permeability of the muscle fibers to Na+.

B. Binding of Ca++ to calmodulin.

C. Depolarization of tubule T membrane.

D. ATP hydrolasis

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1. Which of the following parts of the body has cortical motoneurons with the largest representation on the primary motor cortex area:

A. Kness

B. Trunk

C. Thorax

d. Fingers

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3.Which thalamic nucleus is relay station for sensory information from head region.

a. Necleus intralaminaris thalami

b Nucleus ventralis thalamis posterolateralis

c. Nucleus ventralis thaami anterior

d. Nucleus ventralis thalami posteromedialis

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2. Which cerebellar neurons has inhibitory effects on deep cereballar nuclei-.

a. Basket cells

b. Purkynje cells

c. Golgi 2 cells

d. Granule cells

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4. which ascending spinal tract is responsible for crude touch sensation:

a. spinothalamic anterior

b. spinothalamic lateralis

c. Fascicullus gracillis

d. Spinocerebellar dorsal

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5. which part of CNS use disinhibition to produce their effects:

A medulla oblongata

b. cerebellum

c. basal ganglia

d. reticular formation

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10. which brodmans area is responsible for abbility to speak or write:

a. 6

b. 22

c. 39

d. 44

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9. Which type of EEG waves has the highest frequency:

a. alpha

b. Beta

c Delta

d. Theta

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8. Which of the following mediators is not major for extrapyramidal system:

a. GABA

b. Dopamine

c. Noradrenaline

d. acetylcholine

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6. Which of the following structures has a primary function to coordinate rate, range and force and direction of movment:

a. Basal ganlia

b. Prefontal cortex

c. Cerebellum

d. Primary motor cortex

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1. Choose incorrect sentence: Cholecystokinin (CCK)

A. Inhibtis gallbladder contraction for bile release

B. Stimulates satiety

C. Stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion

D. Is secreted in response to fatty acids

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2. Hyperventilation results in the increase of arterial pO2 and reduction pCO2. What changes in diameter of cerebral vessels will be observed in these terms?

 

more pO2 / less pCO2

A. Dilatation of arteries

B. Dilatation of veins

C. Narrowing of arteries

D. The diameter of vessels will not change

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3. The value of Tiffeneau-Pinelli index (FEV1/FVC ratio) is predominantly determined by:

 

 calculated ratio used in the diagnosis of obstructive and restrictive lung disease

A. Minute ventilation

B. Total lung capacity

C. Forced first second expiration

D. Forced inspiration

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  1. Anatomical dead space is:

a. A volume left in the airways after the maximal exhalation

b. Not ventilated alveoli

c. A part of tidal volume which is not involved in gas exchange and is exhaled during next breathing cycle

d. All the answers are correct

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194.Resistance in airways leads to

a. Decreased Tidal Vol.

b. increased Tidal Vol.

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  1. Obstruction in airways causes that

a. Tiffenau index is decreased

b. Inspiration is prolonged

c. Expiration is prolonged

d. Answer a and c are correct

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  1. Volume of air inhaled into the lungs depends on pressure changes in a pleural cave and on lung compliance, thus the changes of pressure in the airways result in volume changes of the chest cage.

a. Both sentences are true

b. Both sentences are false

c. Only the second sentence is truth

d. Only the first sentence is truth

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11. a preterm infant has a surfactant deficiency. Without surfactant, many of the alveoli collapse at the end of each expiration, which lead to pulmonary failure. Which of the following changes is present in a preterm infant, compared with a normal infant?

Alveolar surface tension  vs. pulmonary compliance 

--> CHOOSE THE RIGHT PAIR

a. Decreased vs. increased 

b. Increased vs. no change 

c. Decreased vs. no change 

d. Increased vs. decreased

 

d. increased alveolar surface tension and decreased pulmonary compliance

--> as type II alveolar cells produce surfactant which decreases surface tension to prevent collapse of alveoli 

-> pulmonary compliance: is a measure of the lung's ability to stretch and expand (distensibility of elastic tissue)

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2. anatomic dead space

 

Dead space= part in lung that does not participate in gas exchange 

a. Is in low parts of airways

b. Equals 150 ml

c. Is in upper parts of airways

d. Answers b and c is correct

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3. partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in alveolar air equals - in arteries:

a. P O2 = 95 mmHg, P CO2 = 46 mmHg

b. P O2 = 100 mmHg, P CO2 = 46 mmHg

c. PO2 = 100 mmHg, PCO2 = 40 mmHg

d. P O2 = 95 mmHg, P CO2 = 40 mmHg

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3. partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in alveolar air equals - in veins:

a. P O2 = 95 mmHg, P CO2 = 46 mmHg

b. P O2 = 40 mmHg, P CO2 = 46 mmHg

c. PO2 = 100 mmHg, PCO2 = 40 mmHg

d. P O2 = 95 mmHg, P CO2 = 40 mmHg

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4. diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide is influenced by:

a. Partial pressure gradients

b. Diffusion distance

c. Surface area and membrane thickness

d. All answers are correct

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5. vital capacity is:

a. The amount of air included between maximum inhale and quiet exhale

b. The sum of the inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume and tidal volume

c. The sum of expiratory reserve volume and residual volume

d. The sum of inspiratory reserve volume and residual volume

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7. tidal volume during quiet breathing equals:

a. 100 ml

b. 500 ml

c. 1200 ml

d. 1500 ml

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13. hypercapnia:

a. Intensifies ventilation

b. Reduces ventilation

c. Turns of respiratory center

d. Answer b and c is correct