Flashcards

Flashcards 451 Flashcards
Students 37 Students
Language English
Level University
Created / Updated 23.11.2016 / 25.08.2019
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14 Exact answers 11 Text answers 426 Multiple-choice answers
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1. Choose incorrect sentence: Cholecystokinin (CCK)

A. Inhibtis gallbladder contraction for bile release

B. Stimulates satiety

C. Stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion

D. Is secreted in response to fatty acids

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2. Hyperventilation results in the increase of arterial pO2 and reduction pCO2. What changes in diameter of cerebral vessels will be observed in these terms?

 

more pO2 / less pCO2

A. Dilatation of arteries

B. Dilatation of veins

C. Narrowing of arteries

D. The diameter of vessels will not change

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3. The value of Tiffeneau-Pinelli index (FEV1/FVC ratio) is predominantly determined by:

 

 calculated ratio used in the diagnosis of obstructive and restrictive lung disease

A. Minute ventilation

B. Total lung capacity

C. Forced first second expiration

D. Forced inspiration

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  1. Anatomical dead space is:

a. A volume left in the airways after the maximal exhalation

b. Not ventilated alveoli

c. A part of tidal volume which is not involved in gas exchange and is exhaled during next breathing cycle

d. All the answers are correct

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194.Resistance in airways leads to

a. Decreased Tidal Vol.

b. increased Tidal Vol.

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  1. Obstruction in airways causes that

a. Tiffenau index is decreased

b. Inspiration is prolonged

c. Expiration is prolonged

d. Answer a and c are correct

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  1. Volume of air inhaled into the lungs depends on pressure changes in a pleural cave and on lung compliance, thus the changes of pressure in the airways result in volume changes of the chest cage.

a. Both sentences are true

b. Both sentences are false

c. Only the second sentence is truth

d. Only the first sentence is truth

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11. a preterm infant has a surfactant deficiency. Without surfactant, many of the alveoli collapse at the end of each expiration, which lead to pulmonary failure. Which of the following changes is present in a preterm infant, compared with a normal infant?

Alveolar surface tension  vs. pulmonary compliance 

--> CHOOSE THE RIGHT PAIR

a. Decreased vs. increased 

b. Increased vs. no change 

c. Decreased vs. no change 

d. Increased vs. decreased

 

d. increased alveolar surface tension and decreased pulmonary compliance

--> as type II alveolar cells produce surfactant which decreases surface tension to prevent collapse of alveoli 

-> pulmonary compliance: is a measure of the lung's ability to stretch and expand (distensibility of elastic tissue)

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2. anatomic dead space

 

Dead space= part in lung that does not participate in gas exchange 

a. Is in low parts of airways

b. Equals 150 ml

c. Is in upper parts of airways

d. Answers b and c is correct

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3. partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in alveolar air equals - in arteries:

a. P O2 = 95 mmHg, P CO2 = 46 mmHg

b. P O2 = 100 mmHg, P CO2 = 46 mmHg

c. PO2 = 100 mmHg, PCO2 = 40 mmHg

d. P O2 = 95 mmHg, P CO2 = 40 mmHg

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3. partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in alveolar air equals - in veins:

a. P O2 = 95 mmHg, P CO2 = 46 mmHg

b. P O2 = 40 mmHg, P CO2 = 46 mmHg

c. PO2 = 100 mmHg, PCO2 = 40 mmHg

d. P O2 = 95 mmHg, P CO2 = 40 mmHg

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4. diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide is influenced by:

a. Partial pressure gradients

b. Diffusion distance

c. Surface area and membrane thickness

d. All answers are correct

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5. vital capacity is:

a. The amount of air included between maximum inhale and quiet exhale

b. The sum of the inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume and tidal volume

c. The sum of expiratory reserve volume and residual volume

d. The sum of inspiratory reserve volume and residual volume

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7. tidal volume during quiet breathing equals:

a. 100 ml

b. 500 ml

c. 1200 ml

d. 1500 ml

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13. hypercapnia:

a. Intensifies ventilation

b. Reduces ventilation

c. Turns of respiratory center

d. Answer b and c is correct

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10. a chemosensitive are located in the medulla modulates respiration when the blood level of certain substances is not optional. The chemosensitive area responds to changes in the blood levels of which of the following substances?

--> CHOOSE CORRECT ANSWER:

Oxygen(O2)        Carbon Dioxide(CO2)        Hydorgen Ion (H+)

a. No                        yes                                     no

b. Yes                       yes                                     yes 

c. No                      yes                                   yes 

d. Yes                       yes                                      no 

 

c. respond to PCO2 and H+ 

Chemoreceptors in the medulla and carotid bodies respond to increased changs in PCO2 and little to H+ 

increased PCO2 = leads to increased ventilation 

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1. peripheral chemoreceptors

a. Are in the aortic and carotid bodies

b. Are stimulated by decrease in partial pressure of O2 (60mmHG triggers increase in ventilation)

c. Are stimulated by increase in partial pressure of CO2 and decrease in pH

d. All answers are correct

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6. switch off neurons that shorten inspiration

a. Have stimulating signals from pneumotaxic center

b. Have inhibiting signals from pneumotaxic center

c. Have signals from central chemoreceptors

d. Answer a and c is correct

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8. total lung capacity equals:

a. IRV+TV+ERV+RV

b. VC + TV

c. IRV + TV + ERV

d. TLC – RV

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1 Comments

  • 09.06.2019
    C. Pneumotaxic Center
1

9. the basic rhythm of respiration is generated by neurons located in the medulla. Which of the following limits the duration of inspiration and increases respiratory rate?

a. Dorsal respiratory group

b. Apneutic center

c. Pneumotaxic center

d. Ventral respiratory group

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4. Increase in CO2 concentration in blood will:

A. Stimulate central chemoreceptors in order to increase hydrogen ions level in blood

B. Decrease minute ventilation and vital capacity of lungs

C. Increase breath rate and CO2 expulsion

D. Trigger baroreflex and renal flow

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31. Anatomic dead space:

A. Is in low parts of airways

B. Equals 150ml

C. Is in upper parts of lungs

D. Answer B and C is correct

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47. The form of hemoglobin that has carbon dioxide attached is called:

 

HbCO2

A. Carboxyhemoglobin

B. Carbaminohemoglobin

C. Methemoglobin

D. Deoxyhemoglobin

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54. In the following reaction, what does A represent?CO2 + H2O <—-> H2CO3 <—> H+ + A

 

H2CO3 = carbonic acid

equation performed by carbonic anhydrase in the RBC 

A. Bicarbonate

B. Carbonic acid

C. Carbonic anhydrase

D. Hemoglobin

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57. Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide is influenced by:

A. Partial pressure gradients

B. Diffusion distance

C. Surface area and membrane thickness

D. All answers are correct

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5. Physiologic role of the pneumataxic centre comprise all functions listed below EXCEPT:

a)coordination of transition between inhalation and exhalation

b)inhibition of the inspiratory area

c)controlling voluntary forced exhalation

d)tuning of respiration rate

e)overriding the apneustic area

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6. In patients with chronic respiratory failure (i.e. with a permanent hypercapnia= elevated CO2 levels) the most powerful stimulation of respiratory centre results from

a)hypoxemia (low level of O2)

b)hypoxia

c)acidosis

d)chest deflection

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The Bohr effect causes that the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen decreases and occurs when

 

a. pH decreases in tissues and temperature increase

b. pH increases in tissues and temperature increases

c. pH increases in lungs and temperature decreases

d. pH increases in lungs and temperature increses

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Parasympathetic stimulation of tissues in walls of bronchioles causes:

 

Bronchodilation

Increased blood flow

Dilation of alveoli

Bronchoconstriction (histamine/leukotrine)

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Obturation in airways causes that

A.Tiffenau index is decreased

B.Inspiration is prolonged

C. Expiration is prolonged

D.Answer a and c are correct