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Theories of Learning

Behavioral learning theory

S-R paradigm

Classical conditioning

Operant conditioning (i.e., instrumental conditioning)

Cognitive learning theory

S-O-R paradigm

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Operant Conditioning & Shaping Procedures

Terminal Goal: Repeat Purchase Behavior

Approximation Sequence: Induce product trial -> Induce purchase with little financial obligation -> Induce purchase with moderate obligation

Shaping Procedure: Free samples distributed; large discount coupon -> Discount coupon prompts purchase with little cost; coupon good for small discount on next purchae enclosed -> Small discount coupon prompts purchase with moderate cost -> Purchase occurs without coupon assistance

Reinforcement Applied: Product Performance; coupon -> Product performance, coupon -> Product Performance -> Product Performance

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Cognitive Learning Theory

Goal -> Purposive Behavior -> Insight -> Goal Achievement

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A Model of the Communication Process

see slide 60 in review

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Message & Channel


Message content (i.e., information / meaning conveyed)

Outcome of creative strategy task (see section 4 Communication Development)

Message appeal (i.e., overall communication approach, e.g., emotional)

Outcome of creative strategy task

Message structure (i.e., the way the message is communicated, e.g., verbal vs. visual)

Outcome of creative strategy task

Message appearance (i.e., how content is presented, e.g., design of a print ad)

Overall outcome of creative execution task


Personally delivered vs. non-personally derived

Marketing based vs. non-marketing based

Communication Channel Strategy


Directed at distributors (e.g., via sales force, trade promotion incentives)

Low brand loyalty within category

Brand choice made on site (e.g., stores)

Impulse items


Directed at consumers (e.g., via TV advertising)

High brand loyalty within category

High involvement within category

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Response Models: Explanations of Consumer Persuasion

Traditional response hierarchy models

AIDA model

Hierarchy of effects model

Innovation adoption model

Information processing model

Alternative response hierarchy classification

Standard learning hierarchy

Dissonance/attribution hierarchy

Low-Involvement hierarchy

Foote, Cone, & Belding (FCB) Grid

Cognitive response models

Dual-Mediation Hypotheses

Mere exposure

Elaboration likelihood model

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Traditional Response Hierarchy Models

see slide 63 in review

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How Can a Firm Test for Effects in Consumers’ Response Hierarchies?

see slide 64 in review