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Fenster schliessen

Communications Effects Pyramid

see slide 140 in review

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The GfK Purchase Funnel

Awareness -> Familarity -> Opinion/ Imagery -> Consideration -> One Make/ Model Intention -> Shopping -> Purchase

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Source Attributes - Receiver Processing Modes

see slide 146 in review

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Source Credibility

Ethical

Trustworthy

Experienced

Unbiased

Honest

Believable

Skillful

Knowledgeable

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Source Attractiveness

Similarity: Resemblance between the source and recipient of the message

Familiarity: Knowledge of the source through repeated or prolonged exposure

Likeability: Affection for the source resulting from physical appearance, behaviour, or personal traits

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Source Power

Perceived Control, Perceived concern, Perceived scrutiny

-> Compliance

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Communication Message Development

see slide 151 in review

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What is the Message Content ?

..the information and/or meaning contained in a message.

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What is the Message Appeal

..the approach used to attract the attention of consumers and/or to shape their emotions, cognitions, and behaviors toward the product, service, or

cause.

Something that moves people,speaks to their wants and needs, and excites their interest.

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Types of Message Appeals

see slide 157 in review

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Rational Appeals

Feature: Focus on dominant traits of the product

Competitive: Makes comparisons to other brands

Price: Makes price offer the dominant point

News: News announcement about the product

Popularity: Stresses the brand's popularity

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Emotional Appeals

Safety, Security, Fear, Love, Affection, Happiness, Joy; Nostalgia, Sentiment, Excitement, Arousal

Stimulation, Sorrow, Grief, Pride, Achievement, Accomplishment, Self-esteem, Embarrassment, Actualization, Pleasure, Ambition, Comfort

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Humor Appeal

Pros:

Aids attention and awareness

May aid retention of the message

Creates a positive mood and enhances persuasion

May aid name and simple copy registration

May serve as a distracter, reducing couterarguing

Cons:

Does not aid persuasion in general

May harm recall and comprehension

May harm complex copy registration

Does not aid source credibility

Is not effective in bringing about sales

May wear out faster than non-humorous ads

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What is the Message Structure ?

..the key message elements and their presented structure.

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Transformational Ads

The ads create

Feelings

Meanings

Images

Beliefs

It must make the product use experience

Richer

More Exciting

Warmer

More Enjoyable

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The Process of Consumer Decision Making

Decision Making Process

Problem Recognition -> Information Search -> Alternative Evaluation -> Purchase Decision -> Postpurchase Evaluation

Psychological Mechanisms

Motivation -> Perception -> Attitude Formation -> Integration -> Learning

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Sources of Problem Recognition

Out of stock

Dissatisfaction

New need

Related products

New products

Marketer-induced

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Maslows Hierachy of Needs

Selfactualization needs (selfdevelopment and realization)

Esteem needs (self-esteem, recognition, status)

Social needs (sense of belonging, love)

Safety needs (security, protection)

Physiological needs (hunger, thirst)

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General Need Theory

Functional

Social: Modeling, Support

Nonsocial: Safety, Order, Physical well being

Symbolic

Social: Status, Affiliation, Belonging, Achievement

Nonsocial: Self-determination, Individuality

Hedonic

Social: Reinforcment, Relationship, Sex

Nonsocial: Sensory stimulation, cognitive stimulation, novelty

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Cosumer Needs...

..are dynamic

..exist in hierarchy

..internally or externally aroused

..can conflict

Approach-Avoidance

Approach-Approach

Avoidance-Avoidance

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What is Motivation ?

..an inner state of arousal that provides energy needed to achieve a goal.

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Motivation driven by...

Fundamental Drivers: Affect, Physiological Drivers

Cognitive Process: Goal Orientation, Alternative Actions

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Outcomes of Motivation

High effort behavior

High-effort information processing and decision making

Motivated reasoning

Felt involvement

Enduring

Situational

Cognitive

Affective

Response

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Objects of involvement

Product categories

Experiences

Brands

Ads

Medium

Particular show/article

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How Can a Firm Measure Consumers’ Involvement in a Product Category?

with scales

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External Information Search

Personal sources

Marketer-controlled

Public

Personal experience

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What is Perception

..the process by which an individual receives, selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

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A conceptual framework of sensory marketing

see slide

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The selective perception process

Selective Exposure -> Selective Attention -> Selective Comprehension -> Selective Retention

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Brand consideration

Inept set

Inert set

Consideration set