Lehrveranstaltung UZH WWF (6 Credits), 2013
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What's the difference between a) complete and b) incomplete information?
a) In a game with complete information all players are common knowledge. Example: prisoner's dilemma
b) In a game of incomplete information at least one player is uncertain about another player0s payoffs. Example: an auction ("true men do not eat quiche")
What's the difference between a
a) zero-sum game &
b) non zero-sum game?
a) In a zero-sum game what one players win is what the other looses. --> The players interests are completely opposed. The sum of the payoffs is always O.
b) In non zero-sum games both players can gain (think of trade), both can loose (think of nuclear war), there are some element of conflict but also scope for cooperation (think of bargaining)
a) one shot game
b) repeated game
a) a one shot game is played only once by the players
b) In a repeated game, the "same" game is played repeatedly by the "same" players
What kind of game is "removing sticks"?
a dynamic game of perfect information
An extensive form of a game consists of:
- Orders of moves
- Actions. What players can do when they have to move
- Information sets. What each player knows when he has to move.
- Payoffs received by each player for each combination of moves that could be chosen by the players
- The probability distribution over exogenous events. New player: Nature
If a player does not know the moves a previous player had made, he cannot distinguish the corresponding nodes.
--> we speak of....
(a player does not know in which node he is)
Whats an information set?
An information set is a collection of decision nodes which cannot be distinguished by the player with the move.
(Entscheidungsknoten, die nicht unterschieden werden können)
--> in a game of perfect information each information set contains one and only one decision node.
When do we speakt of imperfect recall?
If ignorance about previous moves is the result of a player forgetting something he did before.
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