Fabienne Keller
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Stufe Universität
Erstellt / Aktualisiert 21.02.2013 / 22.07.2020
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0 Exakte Antworten 67 Text Antworten 0 Multiple Choice Antworten
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a) Describe a game with perfect information.


b) And give some examples.

(belongs to "extensive form games")

a) a player moves
his action is observed by the other player who then moves
and his action is observed by the other player and so on, until the game finishes. 


b) - removing sticks

   - chess

  - game played with myself (alarm clock)

  - incrumbent and challenger (price fight or not?)


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How do we usually solve a game with perfect information?


⇒ Games of perfect information are typically solved backwards starting at the end, and are very important to understand credibility of threats and commitment. 

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Describe a normal form game.
normal form is a description of a game. Unlike extensive form, normal-form representations are not graphical per se, but rather represent the game by way of a matrix. While this approach can be of greater use in identifying strictly dominated strategies and Nash equilibria, some information is lost as compared to extensive-form representations
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Describe an equilibrum in a normal form game.


You have played an equilibrium if your choice was a best reply to the other player’s choice and this is also true for the other player, namely her/his choice is a best reply to yours.
In an equilibrium you cannot gain anything by choosing another strategy under the assumption that the other player does not change hers/his. 

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a) describe a simultaneous move game


b) and give some examples

a) simultaneous games are typically represented by the normal form; a game where both players have to decide/move simultaneously


b) prisoner's dilemma 

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decision or game:

a) a pair of teenage girls choosing dresses for their prom

b) a group of grocery shoppers in the diary section with each shopper choosing flavor of yogurt to purchase


a) game - girls choice affects the others choice

b) decision - no interaction among players

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decision or game:

a) a college student considering what type of postgraduate education to pursue

b) the new york times and the wall street journal choosing prices for their online subscriptions this year

a) decision - doesn't affect other people

b) game - (Betrand; price competition; strategic)

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What kind of decision theory is game theory?


Game theory is interactive decision theory

(It studies the behavior of players whoce decisions affect each other)

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What's the difference between a) complete and b) incomplete information?

a) In a game with complete information all players are common knowledge. Example: prisoner's dilemma

b) In a game of incomplete information at least one player is uncertain about another player0s payoffs. Example: an auction ("true men do not eat quiche")

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What's the difference between a

a) zero-sum game &

b) non zero-sum game?

a) In a zero-sum game what one players win is what the other looses. --> The players interests are completely opposed. The sum of the payoffs is always O. 

Example: Rock-Scissors-Paper

b) In non zero-sum games both players can gain (think of trade), both can loose (think of nuclear war), there are some element of conflict but also scope for cooperation (think of bargaining)

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difference between:

a) one shot game

b) repeated game

a) a one shot game is played only once by the players

b) In a repeated game, the "same" game is played repeatedly by the "same" players

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What kind of game is "removing sticks"?

a dynamic game of perfect information

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An extensive form of a game consists of:


- Players

- Orders of moves

- Actions. What players can do when they have to move

- Information sets. What each player knows when he has to move.

- Payoffs received by each player for each combination of moves that could be chosen by the players

- The probability distribution over exogenous events. New player: Nature

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If a player does not know the moves a previous player had made, he cannot distinguish the corresponding nodes.

--> we speak of....


imperfect information

(a player does not know in which node he is)

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Whats an information set?

An information set is a collection of decision nodes which cannot be distinguished by the player with the move.

(Entscheidungsknoten, die nicht unterschieden werden können)

--> in a game of perfect information each information set contains one and only one decision node.

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When do we speakt of imperfect recall?

If ignorance about previous moves is the result of a player forgetting something he did before.

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When do we speakt of games of perfect information?

If all moves are observed and not forgotten

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difference between:

a) move

b) strategy

a) a move is a single action to be taken by a player at a information set controlled by him

b) A strategy is a specification of moves at each information set of the game for a player. It is a complete plan of action, that tells what a player does at any information set in which he may be called to decide.

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What is a complete plan of action?

A complete plan of action tells what a player does at any information set in which he may be called to decide

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Ultimatum Game:

a proposer has 100CHF to split with the responder. He offers a division and the responder can either agree or both get nothing.

If players are rational and only care about the money, the responder will accept anything and 1 will offer the smallest possible amount.

--> Why is this not observed in experiments?

(offers below 10% are rare and offers below 20% are often rejected)


are unable to do the correct backward reasoning,

are altruistic or care about fairness / may feel ashamed

or may fear rejection of low offers


emotion-driven response,

stakes are too low in the Lab (stakes= Einsätze)

or biological aspects

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What's the difference between a game with

a) perfect information

b) complete information?

a) you know, what the other players did before

b) you know the payoffs

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What means "describe the game formally" ? 

(-->give examples)


- set of players (ex:  I = {S, T })

- order of moves (ex: simultaneously)

- information set (ex: HS = ({⊘},{S,n},{S,n,S,n}) )

- actions (ex: AS= {S,N} )

- strategies (ex: SS ={(NNN),(SNN),(NSN),(NNS),(SSN),(SNS),(NSS),(SSS)}  )

- complete equilibrium strategies (ex: S *: {S, S, N}   )

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Two types of stategies in simultaneous-move games:

1.) pure stategies: one specific strategy is played for sure.

2.) mixed stategies: the player randomizes and chooses different pure stategies with positive probability. For instance tossing a coin and go to Tonhalle if Tails comes out and go to the Opera House if Heads comes out.

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The set of stategies in simultaneous-move games can either be..... (2)

1.) discrete (e.g. go to Tonhalle, or to the Opera House)

2.) continuous (e.g. supply of electricity, a price)

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What do we need to apply IESDS?

common knowledge of rationality

--> we need to assume not only that all players are rational, but also that all players know that all players are rational, and that all players know that all players know that all players are rational, and so on

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Nash Equilibrium Theorem !?

In the n-player normal-form G={I, S1,....,Sn ; u1,....un} if n is finite and Si is finite for every i, then there exists at least ONE nash equilibrium, possibly involving mixed strategies.

exceptions: monopoly for example

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Describe the

a) Cournot Equilibrium

b) Bertrand Equilibrium

a) The NE of the Cournot game: In this equilibrium the profits of each firm are positive but lower than half the monopoly profits

b) The NE of the Bertrand game: profits are zero.

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Does rationality lead to equilibrium play?

not necessariliy.

We know that rational players will play stategies that survive IESDS. In some cases this leads to a unique profile --> this is then the unique NE of the game

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What's a second price auction?

ex. with picasso: 

each participant writes how much he's willing to pay. the painting goes to the one who was written the highest number but he will pay the second highest bid.

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Imagine 3 girls sitting in a circle, each wearing either a red hat or a white hat. Suppose that all the hats are red. When the teacher asks if any student can identify the color of her own hat, the answer is always negative, since nobody can see her own hat. But if the teacher happens to remark that there is at least one red hat in the room, a fact which is well-known to every child then the answers change. How?

The first student who is asked cannot tell, nor can the second. But the third will be able to answer with confidence that she is indeed wearing a red hat. (common knowledge)

--> If the hats of 2&3 were white, then the first girl would know, that her one is red. But she cannot tell, which reveals to 2 &3 that at least one of them is wearing a red hat.

the 3 one knows because she thinks: "If my hat had been white, then the second girl would have answered that she was wearing a red hat, since we both know that at least one of us is wearing a red hat. But the second girl could not answer, Therefore I must be wearing a red hat!"