Maria Delgadillo
Karten 44 Karten
Lernende 1 Lernende
Sprache English
Stufe Universität
Erstellt / Aktualisiert 11.12.2013 / 12.12.2013
Lizenzierung Kein Urheberrechtsschutz (CC0)
0 Exakte Antworten 44 Text Antworten 0 Multiple Choice Antworten
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Major Depressive Disorder

Symptoms in the picture.

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Biological Approach to Major Depressive Disorder

Neurotransmitters and depression

  • Serotonin: people who suffer from depression have low levels of serotonin. SSRI's are pharmaceuticals that decrease depression

Study: Acute Tryptophan Depletion

  • Tryptophan is a precursor of serotonin (amino acids). If high levels of tryptophan then high levels of serotonin.
  • Foods with high levels of Tryptophan: eggs, milk, chocolate
  • Independent Variable: drink containing tryptophan vs. drink that didn't contain tryptophan.
  • 5 hour delay
  • Dependent Variable: self report measure of elation (being really happy)-depression and energetic-tired.
  • Women drinking tryptophan were not depressed but incosistent.
  • People who are more depressed eat more chocolate.

- Genes: Under 40% of heritability- major depressive disorder. So much of it is the environment (death, bullying, weather)

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Learning/Cognitive Approach to Major Depressive Disorder

- Learned Helplesness: the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.

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Martin Seligman and his study.

Martin Seligman (American Psychologist)

  • When animals and people feel as though they cannot control the occurence of negative events, people and animals give up.


  • 8 dogs in each group
  • Independent Variable: inescapable shock vs. no treatment
  • 10 trials in shuttlebox
  • Dependent Variable: How many times did the dogs give up?

- The dogs gave up more times with the inescapable shock than with no treatment.

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Social Approach to Major Depressive Disorders

Culture and Depression

  • Cultural institutions helps us define what mental illness is
  • Can culture lead to mental illness?
  • Is American culture making us mentally sick?

Jean Twenge

  • Over time, college kids are more and more depressed.
  • If you are neurotic, you'll likely suffer from depression.
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- Wrote a book called "The Same Society"

-Capitalism is the root of all evil: money can lead to problems.

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Sheldon Solomon

- Co-creator of the Terror Management Theory

-Says our value system is too high (being thin, rich)

- We're not only harmin ourselves, but also destroying the environment, because we are creating a lot of materials. For example, in China their factories cause rivers to be dead and also if we need new homes we cut down the trees.

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Bipolar Disorders

- Manic Depression

- A mood disorder in which a person alternated between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.

  • Bipolar I
  • Bipolar II

- Stephen Fry: comedian had bipolar disorder. Compared weather to the disorder.