Aerobic-Exercise: sweating, significant effect in decreasing depression.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
- An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. Excessive worry and anxiety without a specific cause. Elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate, muscle tension, sweating, and shaking.
- An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
- An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation. Sense of endangerment or a fear of harm.
Ex: Agoraphobia: fear of being trapped in an inescapable place or situation.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nighmares, social withrdawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
- Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
- Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric Disorders
Schizoid Personality Disorder: rare, affects more men than women. Detached from others, cold, uninterested, withdrawn.
- Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Disorders
Histrionic Personailty Disorder: excessive but shallow emotions & attention-seeking. Exaggerated symptoms of weakness/illness.
Cluster C: Anxious or Fearful Disorders
Avoidant Personality Disorder: 1% of adults in U.S. Extreme shyness, sensitive, low self-esteem, avoidant to social situations.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
- A personality disorder in which a person (usually male) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family members. Aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist. Difficulty feeling empathy for others. Begin the symptoms during childhood (ex: cruelty to animals).
- Treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.
- The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
- A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient. Most patients are women. Controversial.
What is hoarding?
The excessive collection of items, with the inability to discard them.
Hoarding is considered a psychological disorder in the DSM-5 as "hoarding disorder".
What overarching criteria is used to determine if an individual has a psychological disorder?
- Deviance, Distress, Dysfunction, Danger
- Deviance: different from most people. Standards for deviant behavior vary by context, culture( ex: poligamy), and even over time.
Homosexuality was deemed a psychological disorder up until 1973.
Hoarding is not the norm so deviance is met.
- Distress: The deviant behavior leads the person to experience distress (an uncomfortable feeling, or specifically feelings of anxiety and/or depression)
The people in the hoarding video appear to be ditressed. One guy said he felt buried alive.
- Dysfunction: The deviant and distressful behavior leads to problems at work and one's ability to enjoy leisure time.
It seems that at least the leisure of the individuals in the video is somewhat disrupted so the dysfunction is met.
- Danger: is the deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior harmful to other peopl or the individual.
In the hoarding video, they are not sanitary and can lead to diseases and harm them.
What is the DSM?
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM) is the current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders. It categorizes particular disorers by symptoms, prevalence, course of disorder, insurance purposes (for economic reasons)
- This is the bible of psychologists
What is a clinical interview?
A face-to-face encounter between patient and clinician. The purpose is to collect information about the person to put a label on them.
Lifestyle (drink?, smoke?)
Relationships (parents, romantic, friends)
Personal history (relatives who suffer from psychological disorders?)
- Unstructured (go with the flow, why are you here?) vs. Structured (strict set of questions they ask)
Is there evidence to suggest that psychologists/psychiatrists agree about a particular diagnosis?
- Yes: as indicated by Riskind. Generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder.
- No: as indicated by Black. Not much agreement about some psychological disorders. For example: distinguishing one anxiety disorder from another.
Agoraphobia (fear of going out in public) vs. Social Phobia (fear of socializing with others.
Who was Thomas Szasz and what did he say?
- Thomas Szasz: Academic Psychiatrist
Mental illness is a myth (the institution of psychology/psychiatry aims to socially control people who are different)
Mental illness is not real (there are no objective methods for detecting the presence or absence of metal illness)
Szasz influenced the church of scientology and their anti-psychiatry belief.
The Rosenhan Experiment
David Rosenhan: American Psychologist
The Rosenhan Experiment:
- Most psychologists believe that psychological disorders are real and that the labels are helpful (people with schizophrenia have smaller brains).
-Most clinical psychologists and psychiatrists adhere to the medical model conception of mental disorders (psychological disorders are diseases that have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in many cases cured).
- Medical Students Disease: A phenomenon where students think they have the diseases they are studying.
What are Mood Disorders?
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes:
Cultural institutions helps us define what mental illness is
Can culture lead to mental illness?
Is American culture making us mentally sick?
Over time, college kids are more and more depressed.
If you are neurotic, you'll likely suffer from depression.
- Wrote a book called "The Same Society"
-Capitalism is the root of all evil: money can lead to problems.
- Co-creator of the Terror Management Theory
-Says our value system is too high (being thin, rich)
- We're not only harmin ourselves, but also destroying the environment, because we are creating a lot of materials. For example, in China their factories cause rivers to be dead and also if we need new homes we cut down the trees.