Maria Delgadillo
Karten 44 Karten
Lernende 1 Lernende
Sprache English
Stufe Universität
Erstellt / Aktualisiert 11.12.2013 / 12.12.2013
Lizenzierung Kein Urheberrechtsschutz (CC0)
0 Exakte Antworten 44 Text Antworten 0 Multiple Choice Antworten


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If psychological disorders are linked to increased expressions of creativity, why would this be the case?

- The effects of mania and hypomania on cognition

- Divergent (contradictory) thinking, quick thinking, and positive mood. 

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Emily Pronin

- American Social Psychologist

- Has explored the relationship between thought speed and cognition. 


  • Independent Variable: Fast vs.Slow (statements come on screen really fast or really slow and ask the readers to read them out loud.
  • Dependent Variables: Positive Mood, Creativity, and Energy.
  • Conclusion: People thinking faster have a positive mood. 
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Treatment of Psychological Disorders

- For people suffering from psychological disorders, there are many different treatment options (mostly for depression and anxiety):

  • Psychoanalysis: Freud was one of the first to use talk therapy.
  • Humanistic Therapy: warm, friendly, interested in listening, very positive.
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: changing people's mindset.
  • Biomedical Therapies: pills.
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The humanistic approach to therapy

- Carl Rogers (founder)

- The humanistic approach emphasizes:

  • Experience in the here and how
  • Conscious choice (free will): make conscious choices that affect our life.
  • Self-actualization: idea that we are all striving who we are intended/supposed to be.

- Human nature is oriented toward growth, not defense.

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Client-centered therapy

- Important techniques:

  • Not that important to delve into (look into) the client's childhood.
  • Not "patient" but "client"
  • Unconditional positive regard: listen to individual and offer support no matter what they've done.
  • Active listening

- The goal of the client-centered therapy is to create the right conditions for physical growth. To be accepted for who they are. 

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Exercise as therapy

- Exercise and neurochemistry

- Exercise and self-esteem

- Study:

  • College women
  • Placebo: relaxation like yoga.
  • Aerobic-Exercise: sweating, significant effect in decreasing depression.
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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

- An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. Excessive worry and anxiety without a specific cause. Elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate, muscle tension, sweating, and shaking.

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Panic Disorder

- An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.

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- An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation. Sense of endangerment or a fear of harm. 

  • Ex: Agoraphobia: fear of being trapped in an inescapable place or situation.
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

- An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nighmares, social withrdawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience. 

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Personality Disorders

- Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

- Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric Disorders

  • Schizoid Personality Disorder: rare, affects more men than women. Detached from others, cold, uninterested, withdrawn.

- Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Disorders

  • Histrionic Personailty Disorder: excessive but shallow emotions & attention-seeking. Exaggerated symptoms of weakness/illness.

Cluster C: Anxious or Fearful Disorders

  • Avoidant Personality Disorder: 1% of adults in U.S. Extreme shyness, sensitive, low self-esteem, avoidant to social situations.
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Antisocial Personality Disorder

- A personality disorder in which a person (usually male) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family members. Aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist. Difficulty feeling empathy for others. Begin the symptoms during childhood (ex: cruelty to animals).

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- Treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth. 

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- The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.

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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

- A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.  Most patients are women. Controversial.

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What is hoarding?

The excessive collection of items, with the inability to discard them.

Hoarding is considered a psychological disorder in the DSM-5 as "hoarding disorder".

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What overarching criteria is used to determine if an individual has a psychological disorder?

- Deviance, Distress, Dysfunction, Danger

- Deviance: different from most people. Standards for deviant behavior vary by context, culture( ex: poligamy), and even over time.

  • Homosexuality was deemed a psychological disorder up until 1973.
  • Hoarding is not the norm so deviance is met.

- Distress: The deviant behavior leads the person to experience distress (an uncomfortable feeling, or specifically feelings of anxiety and/or depression)

  • The people in the hoarding video appear to be ditressed. One guy said he felt buried alive.

- Dysfunction: The deviant and distressful behavior  leads to problems at work and one's ability to enjoy leisure time.

  • It seems that at least the leisure of the individuals in the video is somewhat disrupted so the dysfunction is met.

- Danger: is the deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior harmful to other peopl or the individual.

  • In the hoarding video, they are not sanitary and can lead to diseases and harm them.
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What is the DSM?

- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM) is the current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders. It categorizes particular disorers by symptoms, prevalence, course of disorder, insurance purposes (for economic reasons)

- This is the bible of psychologists


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What is a clinical interview?

A face-to-face encounter between patient and clinician. The purpose is to collect information about the person to put a label on them. 

  • Problems
  • Lifestyle (drink?, smoke?)
  • Relationships (parents, romantic, friends)
  • Personal history (relatives who suffer from psychological disorders?)

- Unstructured (go with the flow, why are you here?) vs. Structured (strict set of questions they ask)

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Is there evidence to suggest that psychologists/psychiatrists agree about a particular diagnosis?

- Yes: as indicated by Riskind. Generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder.

- No: as indicated by Black. Not much agreement about some psychological disorders. For example: distinguishing one anxiety disorder from another.

  • Agoraphobia (fear of going out in public) vs. Social Phobia (fear of socializing with others.
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Who was Thomas Szasz and what did he say?

- Thomas Szasz: Academic Psychiatrist

  • Mental illness is a myth (the institution of psychology/psychiatry aims to socially control people who are different)
  • Mental illness is not real (there are no objective methods for detecting the presence or absence of metal illness)
  • Szasz influenced the church of scientology and their anti-psychiatry belief.
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The Rosenhan Experiment

David Rosenhan: American Psychologist

The Rosenhan Experiment:

- Most psychologists believe that psychological disorders are real and that the labels are helpful (people with schizophrenia have smaller brains).

-Most clinical psychologists and psychiatrists adhere to the medical model conception of mental disorders (psychological disorders are diseases that have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in many cases cured).

- Medical Students Disease: A phenomenon where students think they have the diseases they are studying.

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What are Mood Disorders?


Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes:

  • Major Depressive Disorders
  • Bipolar Disorders
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Major Depressive Disorder

Symptoms in the picture.

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Biological Approach to Major Depressive Disorder

Neurotransmitters and depression

  • Serotonin: people who suffer from depression have low levels of serotonin. SSRI's are pharmaceuticals that decrease depression

Study: Acute Tryptophan Depletion

  • Tryptophan is a precursor of serotonin (amino acids). If high levels of tryptophan then high levels of serotonin.
  • Foods with high levels of Tryptophan: eggs, milk, chocolate
  • Independent Variable: drink containing tryptophan vs. drink that didn't contain tryptophan.
  • 5 hour delay
  • Dependent Variable: self report measure of elation (being really happy)-depression and energetic-tired.
  • Women drinking tryptophan were not depressed but incosistent.
  • People who are more depressed eat more chocolate.

- Genes: Under 40% of heritability- major depressive disorder. So much of it is the environment (death, bullying, weather)

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Learning/Cognitive Approach to Major Depressive Disorder

- Learned Helplesness: the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.

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Martin Seligman and his study.

Martin Seligman (American Psychologist)

  • When animals and people feel as though they cannot control the occurence of negative events, people and animals give up.


  • 8 dogs in each group
  • Independent Variable: inescapable shock vs. no treatment
  • 10 trials in shuttlebox
  • Dependent Variable: How many times did the dogs give up?

- The dogs gave up more times with the inescapable shock than with no treatment.

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Social Approach to Major Depressive Disorders

Culture and Depression

  • Cultural institutions helps us define what mental illness is
  • Can culture lead to mental illness?
  • Is American culture making us mentally sick?

Jean Twenge

  • Over time, college kids are more and more depressed.
  • If you are neurotic, you'll likely suffer from depression.
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- Wrote a book called "The Same Society"

-Capitalism is the root of all evil: money can lead to problems.

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Sheldon Solomon

- Co-creator of the Terror Management Theory

-Says our value system is too high (being thin, rich)

- We're not only harmin ourselves, but also destroying the environment, because we are creating a lot of materials. For example, in China their factories cause rivers to be dead and also if we need new homes we cut down the trees.