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Erstellt / Aktualisiert 12.01.2015 / 21.01.2020
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334 Exakte Antworten 87 Text Antworten 53 Multiple Choice Antworten
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Atom besteht aus

Protons (+), neutrons and electrons (-) => protons and neutrons forms the nucleus around the electrons move very rapidly in certain shells
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Th electrons in the outermost shell calls

valence electrons
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Heat effect 

electrons move in in one direction = voltage => While traveling on their way through the conductor => these oscillations produce heat
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are the carrier of electrical charge in liquid or gases
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are metals (aluminum/cooper, silver, gold)
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some liquids also belong to teh group of conductors => different to metals?

no electrons but ions move
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have a very weak conductivity => after a certain contamination a certain voltage is attained
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conductivity = the electrons in the outermost shell of the material determine its electrical conductivity
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Isolators (Insulators)

have many electrons in the outermost shell (3 to 8) => no free electrons => The electrical resistance is almost infinite
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effect of light

Bohrs model => greater the distance of the electron from the core, the greater is the energy level of the electron => quantum jump from on to another orbit

=> The light effect by the quantum jump can be produced withe different material

=> fall back to a lower orbit and emit photons of light, which can be seen as visible light 

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Light Bulb

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Inside: either a cave or low pressure inert gas => The heating of the filament causes it to emit light and the vacuum/inert gas prevents the filament from burning out due to evaporation
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Fluorescent lamp 

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the glass tube, which contains two electrodes at each end and a gas => both electrode filaments very quickly and emits electrons to ionize the argon gas inside the tube ==> ignites the gas with a very high voltage
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Light emitting diode (LED) 

two semiconductors layers=> low voltage electrons are moved from one semiconductor material to another semidconductor material => In the penetration (Durchdringung) of the other semiconductor material light photons are generated ==> High efficiency low pr
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a magnetic field rotates inside a conductor loop and produces an alternating voltage => When a load is connected to the conductor loop, an AC results
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the chemical effect of electricity is used to produce voltage => two different solid conductors are submerged on a liquid conductor
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Piezo Effect 

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a changing mechanical load => crystals produce a voltage proportional to the change in geometric dimension => this is a reversible process => clocks, watches
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consequence of static charching during flight after teh flight?

between aircraft fuselage can generate large sparks (Funken ) => can affect communications and navigation systems
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two different metals are connected and heated at the junction ==> very low voltage is produced
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Spannung (V) the relation of the work (w) necessary to move a charge (lauding) to the magnitude of this electrical charge (Q)

=> \(U = {W \over Q}\)

=> pole with a shortage of electrons is called positive (+)

=> pole with a surplus of electrons is called negative (-) 

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der Fluss = Spannung => (A) => is directed movement of electrical charge => rleation quarge to time

=> \(I = {Q \over t}\)

=>Current flow must be from the electron superplus (-) to the lectron shortage (+) 

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Wiederstand (R) => electrons exchange their energy => in this way, electrical energy is transformed into heat

Depends on:

a) resistance of the material

b) teh length

c) section 


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Types of resistors 

a) Evaporated carbon resitor => thinner layers provide greater resistance

b) Metal resistor: alloys are wounded around a small porcelain tube => the cros section of the conductor and the length of the wire  

c) Variable esistor => manually controllable = potentiometer

d) Temperature Dependence => 3 types: PTC, constant and NTC resistance of every resistor changes with temperature

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Variable resistor => manually controllable resistor z.B. VHF 


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Temperature Independent Resistor 

The value of the resistor remains constant with the temperature change => used as a balancing resistor in temperature measurement circuit
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Positive Temperature coefficient Resistor: resistance increase with increasing temperature
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Negative Temperature Coefficient Resistor: resistance decreases as the temperature increases => 2 Drähte ( innen + aussen Halbleitermaterial, ganz aussen die Masse) wenn es heisser, nimmt Resistance ab und wandert an die Masse = electrical Fluss = Signal
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Electrical Circuit (DC)

a closed circuit => DC electrical circuit => No change in the amount of current over time in a DC circuit = I = constant = no change in the direction of the current
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Electrical Circuit (AC) 

AC current means a change in the direction of the current
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Toggle switch

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switch multiple independent circuit
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Ganging ? 

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switch multiple independent circuit => Connection over many switches !!