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Descriptive statistics

consist of organizing and summarizing data. Described data through numerical summaries, tables, and graphes.

Examples include:  the U.S. Census, Special Interest, Group Studies, Marketing Studies, Consumer

                                             Habits, etc

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Inferential Statisitics

uses methods that take a result from a sample, extend it to the population, and measure the reliability of the result. 

Ex: Games of chance,  insurance industry, simulations, consumer taste, 

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Parameter

numerical summary of population

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Process of Statistics

1. Identify the research objective: A researcher must determine the questions he or she wants answered. The questions must be detailed so that it identifies the population that is to be studied. 

2. Collect the data needed to answer the questions posed in #1

3. Describe the data

4. Perform Inference: Apply appropriate techniques to extend the results obtained from the sample to the population and report a level of reliability of the results

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Variables

are the characteristics of the individuals within the population

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Qualitative, or categorical, variables

allow for classification of individuals based on some attribute or characteristic

Examples are: gender,  geographic area, religious affiliation, membership in a group, etc

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Quantitative variables

provide numerical measures of individuals. The values of a quantitative variable can be added or subtracted and provide meaningful results. 

Examples : age,  weight,  height,  GPA, IQ,  distance, payments,  tax  owed, etc.

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Approach

way to look at and organize a problem so that it can be solved