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Points scored in an NCAA basketball game

Discrete

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How varying the amount of an explanatory variable affect the value of response variable

Explanation

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Observational study

Measures the value of the response variable without attempting to influence the value of either the response or explanatory variables. That is, in an observational study, the researcher observes the behavior of the individuals without trying to influence the outcome of the study. 

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Designed Experiment

if researcher assigns the individuals in a study to a certain group, intentionally changes the value of an explanatory variable, and then records the value of the response variable for each group

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Confounding

occurs in a study when the effects of two or more explanatory variable are not separated. Any relation that may exist between an explanatary variable and the response variable may be due to some othervariable or variables not accounted for in the study.

Ex: Desire for a type of food and how hungry the  subject is at the time of the study

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Lurking variable

is an explanatory variable that was not considered in a study, but that affects the value of the response variable in the study. Lurking variables are typically related to explanatory variables considered in the study. 

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3 major categories of observational studies:

1) Cross-sectional studies

2) Case-control studies

3) Cohort studies

1) collect information about individuals at a specific point in time or over a very short period of time

2) retrospective they require individuals to look back in time or require the researcher to look at existing records. In case control studies individuals who have a certain characteristics may be matched with those who do not. 

3)  identifies a group of individuals to participate in the study(cohort). Observed over a long period of time. Characteristics about individuals are recorded and come individuals will be exposed to certain factors and others will not. Downside since longer study  people drop out leading to scewed results. 

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Census

list of individuals in a population along with certain characteristics of each individual.