Lernkarten

Karten 44 Karten
Lernende 1 Lernende
Sprache English
Stufe Universität
Erstellt / Aktualisiert 07.09.2015 / 02.05.2019
Lizenzierung Keine Angabe
Weblink
Einbinden
1 Exakte Antworten 43 Text Antworten 0 Multiple Choice Antworten
Fenster schliessen

Statistics

is science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information to draw conclusions or answer questions.
Fenster schliessen

Data 

numeric values that are gathered through measurements and/or observations.

Fenster schliessen

Data Set

a collection of data values

Fenster schliessen

Data Value (datum)

an individual value  in a data set

Fenster schliessen

Population

Entire group to be studied

Ex: people, animals, foods, 

Fenster schliessen

Individual

person or object that is a member of the population being studied

Fenster schliessen

Sample

is a subset of the population that is being studied

Fenster schliessen

Statistic

numerical summary of a sample

Fenster schliessen

Descriptive statistics

consist of organizing and summarizing data. Described data through numerical summaries, tables, and graphes.

Examples include:  the U.S. Census, Special Interest, Group Studies, Marketing Studies, Consumer

                                             Habits, etc

Fenster schliessen

Inferential Statisitics

uses methods that take a result from a sample, extend it to the population, and measure the reliability of the result. 

Ex: Games of chance,  insurance industry, simulations, consumer taste, 

Fenster schliessen

Parameter

numerical summary of population

Fenster schliessen

Process of Statistics

1. Identify the research objective: A researcher must determine the questions he or she wants answered. The questions must be detailed so that it identifies the population that is to be studied. 

2. Collect the data needed to answer the questions posed in #1

3. Describe the data

4. Perform Inference: Apply appropriate techniques to extend the results obtained from the sample to the population and report a level of reliability of the results

Fenster schliessen

Variables

are the characteristics of the individuals within the population

Fenster schliessen

Qualitative, or categorical, variables

allow for classification of individuals based on some attribute or characteristic

Examples are: gender,  geographic area, religious affiliation, membership in a group, etc

Fenster schliessen

Quantitative variables

provide numerical measures of individuals. The values of a quantitative variable can be added or subtracted and provide meaningful results. 

Examples : age,  weight,  height,  GPA, IQ,  distance, payments,  tax  owed, etc.

Fenster schliessen

Approach

way to look at and organize a problem so that it can be solved 

Fenster schliessen

Discrete Variable 

quantitative variable that has either a finite number of possible values or a countable number of possible values. The term countable means that the values result from counting, 1,2,3. A discrete variable cannot take on every possible value between any teo possible values. 

Examples:  # of Baseball Games won  by the Cardinals ,  # of members of a family,  # of  students in a class, # of  leaves on a tree,  # of  digits in a zip code,  # of  stars in the galaxy,  # of people who wear glasses, etc.

Fenster schliessen

Continuous Variable

quantitative variable that has an infinite number of possible values that are not countable. A continuous variable may take on every possible value between any two values. 

Examples:   a person's temperature, distance between two places,  the speed of an object,  time,  amount of force applied,  etc

Fenster schliessen

Nominal level of measurement

if the values of the variable name, label, or categorize. In addition, the naming sceme does not allow for the values of the variable to be arranged in a ranked or specific order. 

EX: Grouping people by their nationality, gender, their religion, zip code of residence, marital  status, etc.

Fenster schliessen

Ordinal level of measurement

if it has the properties of the nominal level of measurement, however the naming scheme allows for the values of the variable to be arranged in a ranked or specific order 

Ex: Letter Grades  ( A, B, C, D, & F); Rating Scales ( Outstanding, Excellent,  Good, Average,  Poor, Unsatisfactory); Rankings ( General, Colonel, Captain, Sergeant , Corporal, Private)

Fenster schliessen

Interval level of measurement

if it has the properties of the ordinal level of measurement and the differences in the values of the variable have meaning. A value of zero foes not mean the absence of the quanitity. Arthmetic operations such as addition and subtraction can be performed on values of the variable. 

EX: IQ  may be  100 or  110 ( An  IQ of zero does not exist), Temperature may be  90  or  91 degrees ( 0  temperature does not mean  no heat)

Fenster schliessen

Ratio level of measurement

if it has the properties of the interval level of measurement and the ratios of the values of the variable have meaning. A value of zero means the absence of the quantity. Arithmetic operations such as multiplication and division can be performed on the values of the varibale. 

Ex: (Examples include height, weight,  area,  # of phone calls, etc.)

 

Fenster schliessen

Random variable

is one whose values are determined by chance

Fenster schliessen

Independent variable

is one whose value is chosen free of any influence by the value of other variables or any given situation

Fenster schliessen

Dependent variable

is one whose value is determined by the value held by another variable at a given time. 

Fenster schliessen

Grams of carbohydrates in a doughnut

Quantitative

Fenster schliessen

Number of unpopped kernals in a bag of ACT microwave popcorn

Quantitative 

Fenster schliessen

Phone number

Qualitative 

Fenster schliessen

Goals scored in a season by a soccer player

Discrete

Fenster schliessen

Length (in minutes) of a country song

Continuous