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Propionibacterium 2

propionic acid fermentation: propionic acid, acetic acid, CO2

propionic acid fermentation: propionic acid, butyric acid, CO2

synthesis of vitamin B12

antimicrobial metabolites

some are probiotic

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Bacillus 1

aerobes and facultative anaerobic bacteria, catalase (+)

anaerobes and facultative anaerobic bacteria, catalase (-)

facultutive anaerobes or microaerophiles, catalase (+)

found in soil, air, raw materials, water

found on mucous membranes, digestive system, plant material, milk, meat

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Bacillus 2

heat-resistant spores: efficiency of thermal processes

capable of: reduction of nitrates

capable of: producing antimicrobial metabolites (lactic acid, acetic acid, H2O2, bacteriocins)

capable of: breakdown sugars (oxidation)

capable of: hydrolysis of proteins and lipids

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Bacillus 3

food spoilage: souring of canned meat and fish

food spoilage: souring of cheese

food spoilage: color defects in meat e.g. greening

food spoilage: color defects of canned meat and fish

food spoilage: color defects of dairy product

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Pathogenic Bacillus species:

B. cereus (exotoxins)

B. anthracis (anthrax - biological weapon)

B. subtilis (exotoxins)

B. coagulans (endotoxins)

B. antraxis (anthrax - biological weapon)

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Commercial-scale production of Bacillus for production of:

enzymes (amylases), antibiotics, insecticides

vitamins, hyaluronic acid, polygalacturonic acid

probiotic additives

polygalacturonic acid, acetic acid

hyaluronic acid, acetic acid

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Saccharomyces sp .:

alcoholic fermentation in winemaking, brewing, distillation; Baker's yeast

fodder yeast

blue cheese (injected with spores) Camembert cheese, fermented sausages (salami)

enzymatic preparations

use for the production of butyric acid and solvents (e.g. butanol, acetone, isopropanol) and hydrogen

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Candida sp .:
 

production of enzymes (amylases), antibiotics, insecticides

alcoholic fermentation in winemaking, brewing, distillation; Baker's yeast

fodder yeast

blue cheese (injected with spores) Camembert cheese, fermented sausages (salami)

enzymatic preparations

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Penicillium sp .:

production of enzymes (amylases), antibiotics, insecticides

alcoholic fermentation in winemaking, brewing, distillation; Baker's yeast

fodder yeast

blue cheese (injected with spores) Camembert cheese, fermented sausages (salami)

enzymatic preparations

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Aspergillus sp .:

production of vitamins, as well as other metabolites (hyaluronic acid, polygalacturonic acid)

alcoholic fermentation in winemaking, brewing, distillation; Baker's yeast

fodder yeast

blue cheese (injected with spores) Camembert cheese, fermented sausages (salami)

enzymatic preparations

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Fungi may cause defects such as:

change in color, musty taste and smell

off-flavor and offodor due to proteolysis and lipid hydrolysis

deacidification of fermented products

mycotoxins

putrefaction in canned foods: milk, meat, fish together with blown can defect and decarboxylation of amino acids

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What does catalase do?

Catalase is a key enzyme that uses hydrogen peroxide, a non-radical ROS, as its substrate. This enzyme is responsible for neutralization through the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, thereby maintaining an optimum level of the molecule in the cell which is also essential for cellular signaling processes.

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What does oxidase do?

Oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation-reduction reactions, especially one involving dioxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. In reactions involving the donation of a hydrogen atom, oxygen is reduced to water (H2O) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

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What is oxidase and catalase?

Most aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria have catalase!

Oxidase + (Ox +) means that the bacterium has cytochrome c oxidase as a terminal enzyme in the respiratory chain. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of oxygen to water in the presence of cytochrome c and protons.

Catalase + (Cat +) means that the bacterium has catalase, which converts hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.

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Clostridium 1

obligate anaerobes, catalase (-)

facultative anaerobes, catalase (-)

obligate aerobes, catalase (+)

found in: soil, sewage, sediments, human and animal digestive tracts

found on mucous membranes, digestive system, plan material, milk, meat

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Clostridium 2

heat-resistant spores: efficiency of thermal processes

pleomorphism (X, Y, coccoid)

pleomorphism (X, Y, bacilloid)

pathogenic species from the proteolytic group

may cause spoilage defects – color defects in meat e.g. greening

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Clostridium 3

use for the production of butyric acid and solvents (e.g. butanol, acetone, isopropanol) and hydrogen

production of bacteriocins

propionic acid fermentation: propionic acid, acetic acid, CO2

antimicrobial activity of following metabolites: lactic acid, acetic acid, H2O2, bacteriocins

production of dextran - produced in the glycocalyx covering the cells (synthetic blood plasma substitute, slime defects in food products)

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Clostridium 4

break down of sugars: saccharolytic clostridia

break down of proteins: proteolytic clostridia

production of bacteriocins: C. botulinum, C. perfringens, C. acetobutylicum

production of bacteriocins: C. sporogenes, C. butyricum

production of bacteriocins: C. botulinum, C. tetani

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Clostridium 5

Use in medicine: neurotoxins, botulinum-toxin-complex as a therapeutic agent

Use in medicine: metabolites of C. botulinum, C. tetani

Food spoilage: late blowing of cheese & unpleasant, pungent off-flavor of silage

Food spoilage: pungent off-flavor of silage & bulging of tin cans caused by gas

Food spoilage: early blowing of cheese & unpleasant, tangy-flavor of silage

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What happens during putrefaction in canned foods caused by Clostridia?

milk, meat, and fish together with blown can lead to defects and decarboxylation of amino acids