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Commercial-scale production of Bacillus for production of:

enzymes (amylases), antibiotics, insecticides

vitamins, hyaluronic acid, polygalacturonic acid

probiotic additives

polygalacturonic acid, acetic acid

hyaluronic acid, acetic acid

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Saccharomyces sp .:

alcoholic fermentation in winemaking, brewing, distillation; Baker's yeast

fodder yeast

blue cheese (injected with spores) Camembert cheese, fermented sausages (salami)

enzymatic preparations

use for the production of butyric acid and solvents (e.g. butanol, acetone, isopropanol) and hydrogen

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Candida sp .:
 

production of enzymes (amylases), antibiotics, insecticides

alcoholic fermentation in winemaking, brewing, distillation; Baker's yeast

fodder yeast

blue cheese (injected with spores) Camembert cheese, fermented sausages (salami)

enzymatic preparations

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Penicillium sp .:

production of enzymes (amylases), antibiotics, insecticides

alcoholic fermentation in winemaking, brewing, distillation; Baker's yeast

fodder yeast

blue cheese (injected with spores) Camembert cheese, fermented sausages (salami)

enzymatic preparations

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Aspergillus sp .:

production of vitamins, as well as other metabolites (hyaluronic acid, polygalacturonic acid)

alcoholic fermentation in winemaking, brewing, distillation; Baker's yeast

fodder yeast

blue cheese (injected with spores) Camembert cheese, fermented sausages (salami)

enzymatic preparations

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Fungi may cause defects such as:

change in color, musty taste and smell

off-flavor and offodor due to proteolysis and lipid hydrolysis

deacidification of fermented products

mycotoxins

putrefaction in canned foods: milk, meat, fish together with blown can defect and decarboxylation of amino acids

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What does catalase do?

Catalase is a key enzyme that uses hydrogen peroxide, a non-radical ROS, as its substrate. This enzyme is responsible for neutralization through the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, thereby maintaining an optimum level of the molecule in the cell which is also essential for cellular signaling processes.

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What does oxidase do?

Oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation-reduction reactions, especially one involving dioxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. In reactions involving the donation of a hydrogen atom, oxygen is reduced to water (H2O) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

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What is oxidase and catalase?

Most aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria have catalase!

Oxidase + (Ox +) means that the bacterium has cytochrome c oxidase as a terminal enzyme in the respiratory chain. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of oxygen to water in the presence of cytochrome c and protons.

Catalase + (Cat +) means that the bacterium has catalase, which converts hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.

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Clostridium 1

obligate anaerobes, catalase (-)

facultative anaerobes, catalase (-)

obligate aerobes, catalase (+)

found in: soil, sewage, sediments, human and animal digestive tracts

found on mucous membranes, digestive system, plan material, milk, meat

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Clostridium 2

heat-resistant spores: efficiency of thermal processes

pleomorphism (X, Y, coccoid)

pleomorphism (X, Y, bacilloid)

pathogenic species from the proteolytic group

may cause spoilage defects – color defects in meat e.g. greening

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Clostridium 3

use for the production of butyric acid and solvents (e.g. butanol, acetone, isopropanol) and hydrogen

production of bacteriocins

propionic acid fermentation: propionic acid, acetic acid, CO2

antimicrobial activity of following metabolites: lactic acid, acetic acid, H2O2, bacteriocins

production of dextran - produced in the glycocalyx covering the cells (synthetic blood plasma substitute, slime defects in food products)

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Clostridium 4

break down of sugars: saccharolytic clostridia

break down of proteins: proteolytic clostridia

production of bacteriocins: C. botulinum, C. perfringens, C. acetobutylicum

production of bacteriocins: C. sporogenes, C. butyricum

production of bacteriocins: C. botulinum, C. tetani

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Clostridium 5

Use in medicine: neurotoxins, botulinum-toxin-complex as a therapeutic agent

Use in medicine: metabolites of C. botulinum, C. tetani

Food spoilage: late blowing of cheese & unpleasant, pungent off-flavor of silage

Food spoilage: pungent off-flavor of silage & bulging of tin cans caused by gas

Food spoilage: early blowing of cheese & unpleasant, tangy-flavor of silage

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What happens during putrefaction in canned foods caused by Clostridia?

milk, meat, and fish together with blown can lead to defects and decarboxylation of amino acids

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Pseudomonas 1

Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, facultative anaerobe

Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, facultative anaerobe

Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, facultative aerobe

Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, facultative aerobe

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Pseudomonas 2

catalase(+), oxidase(+), capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(-), oxidase(-), capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(-), oxidase(+), capable of reducing nitrite

catalase(+), oxidase(-), capable of reducing nitrite

catalase(+), oxidase(+), capable of reducing nitrite

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Pseudomonas 3

incapable of metabolizing glucose; capable of different types of motilities

capable of metabolizing glucose; capable of different types of motilities

incapable of metabolizing glucose; incapable of different types of motilities

capable of metabolizing glucose; capable of different types of motilities

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Pseudomonas 4

psychrotrophs, growth inhibited at pH < 4.5

psychrotrophs, growth inhibited at pH < 6

mesophiles, growth inhibited at pH < 6.5

mesophiles, growth inhibited at pH < 4

thermophiles, growth inhibited at pH < 5

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces pigments such as py________(blue-green) ; it is also found in the human and animal d______ t_____.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces pigments such as pyocyanin (blue-green); it is also found in the human and animal digestive tracts

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Pseudomonas fluorescens produces pyov______ (yellow-green and fluorescent) and h____-s____ enzymes (li_________ and pr_________ ), which cause milk to spoil, by causing bitterness, ca______ breakdown, and ropiness due to the production of sl________ and coagulation of p_________ .

Pseudomonas fluorescens produces pyoverdine (yellow-green and fluorescent) and heat-stable enzymes (lipases and proteases), which cause milk to spoil, by causing bitterness, casein breakdown, and ropiness due to the production of slime and coagulation of proteins; production of slime → biofilm formation

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P. aeruginosa uses si________ that bind and transport i____ for growth, but also help in colonization of p____ r_____ (stimulation of plant growth) and bioactivity against f______phytopathogens

P. aeruginosa uses siderophores that bind and transport iron for growth, but also help in colonization of plant roots (stimulation of plant growth) and bioactivity against fungal phytopathogens

-> Utilization of sideromycins in antibiotic therapies (siderophores + antibiotics → Tojan horse strategy)

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P. aeruginosa can be used for decomposition of petr_________ compounds (aromatic and saturated hydro_______ , asp_______, resins), which in recent years is one of the most serious env_______ problems (it shows a rapid increase in the presence of cr___ o__ and high tolerance to the increasing the concentration of sub_______)

P. aeruginosa can be used for decomposition of petroleum compounds (aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons, asphaltenes, resins), which in recent years is one of the most serious environmental problems (it shows a rapid increase in the presence of crude oil and high tolerance to the increasing the concentration of substrate)

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Acetobacter 1

obligate aerobes that move using peritrichous flagella

facultative aerobes that move using peritrichorus flagella

obligate anaerobes that move using peritrious flagella

facultative anaerobes that move using perichous flagella

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Acetobacter has a strong ability to oxidize et____ , su___ al_____ , and su_______ into their corresponding organic acids (acetic acid fermentation)

Acetobacter has a strong ability to oxidize ethanol, sugar alcohols, and sugars into their corresponding organic acids (acetic
acid fermentation)

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Acetobacter aceti is used in the production of vi____ by converting the et_____ in wine into ac__ ac_____

Acetobacter aceti is used in the production of vinegar by converting the ethanol in wine into acetic acid

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Enterobacteriaceae
>> coliforms – capable of fermenting l______

give examples for Enterobacteriaceae.

Family: Enterobacteriaceae (animal and human microbiota)
>> coliforms – capable of fermenting lactose

E.g.
Escherichia (E. coli)
Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae)
Enterobacter (E. cloacae)
Citrobacter (C. freundii)
& others – capable of fermenting glucose

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Enterobacteriaceae 2
 

catalase(+), oxidase(+), majority capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(+), oxidase(-), majority capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(-), oxidase(-), capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(+), oxidase(-), capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(+), oxidase(+), incapable of reducing nitrate

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Enterobacteriaceae 3

short rods, some are capable of motility (e.g. Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis – proteolytic bacteria)

short rods, some are capable of motility (e.g. E. coli, E. cloacae – proteolytic bacteria)

long rods, some are capable of motility (e.g. Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis – proteolytic bacteria)

long rods, some are capable of motility (e.g. E. coli, E. cloacae – proteolytic bacteria)

short rods, all except for some are capable of motility (e.g. C. freundii, P. mirabilis – proteolytic bacteria)

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Serratia marcescens grows on bread (called „bloody bread") due to r___ pi________. This is an example for p________

Serratia marcescens grows on bread (called „bloody bread") due to red pigmentation (prodigiosin); proteolysis