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Cartes-fiches 80 Cartes-fiches
Utilisateurs 4 Utilisateurs
Langue English
Niveau Université
Crée / Actualisé 15.05.2022 / 22.05.2022
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Pseudomonas 1

Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, facultative anaerobe

Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, facultative anaerobe

Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, facultative aerobe

Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, facultative aerobe

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Pseudomonas 2

catalase(+), oxidase(+), capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(-), oxidase(-), capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(-), oxidase(+), capable of reducing nitrite

catalase(+), oxidase(-), capable of reducing nitrite

catalase(+), oxidase(+), capable of reducing nitrite

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Pseudomonas 3

incapable of metabolizing glucose; capable of different types of motilities

capable of metabolizing glucose; capable of different types of motilities

incapable of metabolizing glucose; incapable of different types of motilities

capable of metabolizing glucose; capable of different types of motilities

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Pseudomonas 4

psychrotrophs, growth inhibited at pH < 4.5

psychrotrophs, growth inhibited at pH < 6

mesophiles, growth inhibited at pH < 6.5

mesophiles, growth inhibited at pH < 4

thermophiles, growth inhibited at pH < 5

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces pigments such as py________(blue-green) ; it is also found in the human and animal d______ t_____.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces pigments such as pyocyanin (blue-green); it is also found in the human and animal digestive tracts

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Pseudomonas fluorescens produces pyov______ (yellow-green and fluorescent) and h____-s____ enzymes (li_________ and pr_________ ), which cause milk to spoil, by causing bitterness, ca______ breakdown, and ropiness due to the production of sl________ and coagulation of p_________ .

Pseudomonas fluorescens produces pyoverdine (yellow-green and fluorescent) and heat-stable enzymes (lipases and proteases), which cause milk to spoil, by causing bitterness, casein breakdown, and ropiness due to the production of slime and coagulation of proteins; production of slime → biofilm formation

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P. aeruginosa uses si________ that bind and transport i____ for growth, but also help in colonization of p____ r_____ (stimulation of plant growth) and bioactivity against f______phytopathogens

P. aeruginosa uses siderophores that bind and transport iron for growth, but also help in colonization of plant roots (stimulation of plant growth) and bioactivity against fungal phytopathogens

-> Utilization of sideromycins in antibiotic therapies (siderophores + antibiotics → Tojan horse strategy)

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P. aeruginosa can be used for decomposition of petr_________ compounds (aromatic and saturated hydro_______ , asp_______, resins), which in recent years is one of the most serious env_______ problems (it shows a rapid increase in the presence of cr___ o__ and high tolerance to the increasing the concentration of sub_______)

P. aeruginosa can be used for decomposition of petroleum compounds (aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons, asphaltenes, resins), which in recent years is one of the most serious environmental problems (it shows a rapid increase in the presence of crude oil and high tolerance to the increasing the concentration of substrate)

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Acetobacter 1

obligate aerobes that move using peritrichous flagella

facultative aerobes that move using peritrichorus flagella

obligate anaerobes that move using peritrious flagella

facultative anaerobes that move using perichous flagella

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Acetobacter has a strong ability to oxidize et____ , su___ al_____ , and su_______ into their corresponding organic acids (acetic acid fermentation)

Acetobacter has a strong ability to oxidize ethanol, sugar alcohols, and sugars into their corresponding organic acids (acetic
acid fermentation)

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Acetobacter aceti is used in the production of vi____ by converting the et_____ in wine into ac__ ac_____

Acetobacter aceti is used in the production of vinegar by converting the ethanol in wine into acetic acid

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Enterobacteriaceae
>> coliforms – capable of fermenting l______

give examples for Enterobacteriaceae.

Family: Enterobacteriaceae (animal and human microbiota)
>> coliforms – capable of fermenting lactose

E.g.
Escherichia (E. coli)
Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae)
Enterobacter (E. cloacae)
Citrobacter (C. freundii)
& others – capable of fermenting glucose

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Enterobacteriaceae 2
 

catalase(+), oxidase(+), majority capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(+), oxidase(-), majority capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(-), oxidase(-), capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(+), oxidase(-), capable of reducing nitrate

catalase(+), oxidase(+), incapable of reducing nitrate

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Enterobacteriaceae 3

short rods, some are capable of motility (e.g. Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis – proteolytic bacteria)

short rods, some are capable of motility (e.g. E. coli, E. cloacae – proteolytic bacteria)

long rods, some are capable of motility (e.g. Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis – proteolytic bacteria)

long rods, some are capable of motility (e.g. E. coli, E. cloacae – proteolytic bacteria)

short rods, all except for some are capable of motility (e.g. C. freundii, P. mirabilis – proteolytic bacteria)

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Serratia marcescens grows on bread (called „bloody bread") due to r___ pi________. This is an example for p________

Serratia marcescens grows on bread (called „bloody bread") due to red pigmentation (prodigiosin); proteolysis

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Ervinia carotovora, Ervinia herbicola are found on the soft rot of vegetables - polys_________ degradation

 

Ervinia carotovora, Ervinia herbicola are found on the soft rot of vegetables - polysaccharide degradation

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Erwinia amylovora, Citrobacter fruendii, Proteus vulgaris – potential in amy________ production

Erwinia amylovora, Citrobacter fruendii, Proteus vulgaris – potential in amylase production

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examples of pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae

Salmonella, Shigella dysenteriae, and Yersinia enterocolitica

Salmonella, Shigella dysenterrier, and Yersinia enterocatholica

Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Shigella

Enterobacter and Citrobacter

S. xylosus and S. carnosus

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Coliforms 1

majority capable of reducing nitrate, decomposition of proteins

capable of reducing nitrate, decomposition of proteins or amino acids

majority incapable of reducing nitrate, decomposition of amino acids

incapable of reducing nitrate, no decomposition of proteins

some capable of reducing nitrate, no decomposition of amino acids

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Coliforms 2

hygiene microbiological indicators of water, food and technological processes

indicator for fekal contamination

some pathogenic serotypes

no pathogenic serotypes

all serotypes are pathogenic

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Coliforms can perform formic acid fermentation → food defects:
 

early blowing of cheeses

milk-curdling

canned food defects

„bloody bread"

production of slime and coagulation of proteins

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E. coli is industrially used for the production of i________ (transgenic organisms that act as biofactories)
 

E. coli is industrially used for the production of insulin (transgenic organisms that act as biofactories)

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E. coli is used for the production of proteins in the fer________ industry as a model organism (______________________)

E. coli is used for the production of proteins in the fermentation industry as a model organism (understanding the mechanisms of many biological processes)

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Micrococcaceae 1

nonmotile, catalase (+), oxidative metabolism of sugars to water and CO2, oxidase(-), capable of reducing nitrate

motile, catalase (+), oxidative metabolism of sugars to water and CO2, oxidase(+), capable of reducing nitrate

nonmotile, catalase (-), oxidative metabolism of sugars to water and CO2, oxidase(+), not capable of reducing nitrate

nonmotile, catalase (+), oxidative metabolism of sugars to water and CO2, oxidase(+), capable of reducing nitrate

nonmotile, catalase (+), oxidative metabolism of sugars to water and CO2, oxidase(+), not capable of reducing nitrate

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What are biological methods of food preservation?

Fermentation is the biological preservation process also known as biopreservation, used to preserve foods such as kimchi, dry-aged meats, and even seafood.

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What are the 4 main methods of preserving foods?

 

 

Modern methods include canning, pasteurization, freezing, irradiation, and the addition of chemicals.

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What are the (three) basic principles of food processing and preservation?

(1) slowing down or inhibiting ...
(2) directly inactivating ...
(3) avoiding ...

Based on the mode of action, the major food preservation techniques can be categorized as:
(1) slowing down or inhibiting chemical deterioration and microbial growth,
(2) directly inactivating bacteria, yeasts, molds, or enzymes, and
(3) avoiding recontamination before and after processing.

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Food preservation is also targeted towards reduction of discoloration of food products by enzymatic browning which occurs during preparation of p________ f____ products.

Food preservation is also targeted towards reduction of discoloration of food products by enzymatic browning which occurs during preparation of processed food products.

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What is the primary role of microorganisms in food production?

Some microbes are responsible for food spoilage, whereas others are used to increase the flavoring of the food or to produce the food product itself, or help improve its physical and/or chemical characteristics.

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In the production of red wine, the starter cultures are made up of yeasts rather than bacteria (like in cheese production). In both cases, the microbes are used for their fermentation capabilities and the production of the final product.

What fermentation occurs in the production of red wine?
What fermentation occurs in the production of cheese?

The bacteria produce acids as a metabolic by-product that give the cheese its characteristic flavor and aroma, whereas the yeasts produce alcohols that give the wine its characteristic flavor and aroma.