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Saturated fats definition (4)

Are not kinked within the structure (no C=C in carbon chain) and are saturated with many hydrogen atoms 

Solid at lower temperatures

Provide rigidity and less fluidity

Hydrophobic

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Unsaturated fats definition (3)

Less saturated, meaning they have less hydrogen atoms because attached, because C=C in chain takes away bonding possibilities

Provide more fluidity to plasma membrane 

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Trans definition

Straight saturated hydrocarbon chain

Trans = inflexible and straight

Heated cis becomes trans 

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Cis definiton

Bent saturated hydrocarbon chain 

Has a double bond C=C 

Heated cis becomes trans 

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Difference between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat 

mono = one C=C

poly = two or more C=C

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Common features of lipids (3)

Hydrophobic

soluble in ethyl ether & chloroform -> non-polar solvents

Contains many hydrocarbons (chain or ring structure)

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Composition of fatty acid (3)

Carboxylic acid group on one end (COOH, makes it fatty acid), hydrocarbon chain, methyl group on other end (CH3)

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What are implications (effects) on having glyceride rich diet?

Obesity & Atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries)

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Functions of trilgycerides (5)

Blubber for bouyancy (fat weighs les than muscle)

Insulation

Protector of organs & shock absorber

Energy source

Water source 

 

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Why does body store triglycerides rather than carbohydrates (glucose)? (2 reasons)

Triglyceride metabolism yields (wins) more ATP than glucose

Adipose tissue (lipid sotrage) can expand exponentially whereas carbohydrate storage (liver) has finite size

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Differences and similarities of diglycerides and phospolipids (number of fatty acid chains, hydrophilic region, hydrophobic region)

Diglycerides: two fatty acid chains, no hydrophilic region, hydrophilic region

Phospholipids: two fatty acid chains, hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions

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Phospholipids (twi things that make them useful)

Unsaturated fatty acid chain (kink) makes hydrophobic region flexible

Hydrophilic head keeps the membrane together and protects them from bigger and hydrophobic molecules

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Sterols (structure 1, properties 3)

Tetra-ring structure 

Grouped in lipids (same properties)

Non soluble in polar solvents (water)

Soluble in non polar (organic) solvents (ether)

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Cholesterol (function (3), properties (2) -> (1))

Hormone synthesis, vitamin d synthesis, structural support in membranes

Extremely hydrophobic and insoluble in polar solvents 

Packed into apolipoprotein (lipid,cholesterol,protein bundle)

 

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What happens if you have too much cholesterol? (3)

Heart disease

Atherosclerosis

Inflexible membranes 

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HDL (definition, function (2), how much cholesterol do they contain?)

Apolipoprotein (lipids,cholesterol,protein) -> High density of cholesterol

Transportation of fat (cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides) & cholesterol from cells to liver for excretion or reuse

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LDL (definition, function, how much cholesterol do they contain?)

Apoliopprotein -> Low density of cholesterol

Deliver cholesterol to cells (used witihn membrane and synthesis of steroid hormones)