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Cartes-fiches 84 Cartes-fiches
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Sprache English
Niveau Université
Crée / Actualisé 10.07.2019 / 10.07.2019
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What are link segment models made up of?
Linked segment models are made up of body segments.
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What are the two main assumptions that are usually adopted for a link segment model?
Two main assumptions usually adopted for a link segment model are that the body segments are rigid and the joints are frictionless.
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What is measured and what is calculated in inverse dynamics?
In inverse dynamics the motion is measured and the resultant force is calculated.
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Name the three types of forces that act on a body segment.
The three types of forces that act on a body segment are external, internal and inertial.
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Under what circumstances is it justifiable to treat a link segment model as quasi-static?
It is justifiable to treat a link segment model as quasi-static only when the accelerations are small.
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Estimate the length of your upper and lower limbs using your height and the data in Figure 9. How do these estimates compare with the actual length of your upper and lower limbs?
The results of this SAQ are dependent on your own dimensions. As an example I will use the following dimensions, height = 193 cm, measured upper limb length = 75 cm, and measured lower limb length = 100 cm. Length of upper limb is calculated as follows using the ratios given in Figure 9: LUPPER = (0.186 + 0.146 + 0.108) H = 0.440 × 193 = 85 cm Length of lower limb is calculated as follows: LLOWER = (0.186 + 0.146 + 0.108) H = 0.530 × 193 = 102 cm If the calculated limb lengths are compared to measured limb lengths it can be seen that the calculated lower limb lengths are reasonable estimates. However, the calculated upper limb length is 10 cm out. This illustrates the diversity of human dimensions and why standardised data sets should only be used when actual measurements are not available.
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Calculate the mass of the thigh and the position of its centre of mass relative to its proximal and distal ends, given that the total body mass of the subject is 80 kg and direct measurements of the thigh yielded a segment length of 390 mm.
To calculate the mass of the thigh, mTHIGH, the ratio reported in Table 1 is used: mTHIGH = 0.100mBODY = 0.100 × 80 = 8.0 kg To calculate the position of the centre of mass of the thigh relative to its proximal end, IPROXIMAL, the ratio, 0.433, reported in Table 2 is used: IPROXIMAL = 0.433ITHIGH = 0.433 × 390 = 169 mm To calculate the position of the centre of mass of the thigh relative to its proximal end, IDISTAL, the ratio, 0.567, reported in Table 2 is used: IDISTAL = 0.567ITHIGH = 0.567 × 390 = 221 mm The mass of the thigh is 8.0 kg, and its centre of mass is located 169 mm distal to the greater trochanter and 221 mm proximal to the femoral condyles.Note that the centre of mass is closer to the proximal end than to the distal end. This is mainly due to the shape of the thigh which narrows towards its distal end so that more mass is distributed towards the proximal end. The position of the centre of mass is also dependent on the densities of the various tissues, such as bone, muscle and fat, and how they are distributed.
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Calculate the moment of inertia of the lower leg and foot complex about its centre of mass, its proximal end and its distal end, given that the mass of the subject is 75 kg and the length of the lower leg and foot complex is 450 mm. Comment on the difference in radius of gyration about the proximal end and distal end.
Calculating the mass of the lower leg and foot complex, m, using the ratio, 0.061, in Table 1: m = 0.061 × 75 = 4.575 kg Calculating the radius of gyration about the centre of mass, kCM, using the ratio 0.416, given in Table 2: kCM = 0.416L = 0.416 × 450 × 10-3 = 0.1872 = 0.19 m Calculating the moment of inertia about the centre of mass, ICM: ICM = mAkCM = 4.575 × 0.1872 × 0.1872 = 0.1603 = 0.16 kg m2 Calculating the radius of gyration, kP, using the ratio 0.735, and moment of inertia, IP, about the proximal end: kP = 0.735L = 0.735 × 450 × 10-3 = 0.33075 = 0.33 m IP = mkP = 4.575 × 0.33075 × 0.33075 = 0.50048 = 0.50 kg m2 Calculating the radius of gyration, kD, using the ratio 0.572, and moment of inertia, ID, about the distal end: kD = 0.572 × L = 0.572 × 450 × 10-3 = 0.2574 = 0.26 m ID = mkD = 4.575 × 0.2574 × 0.2574 = 0.3031 = 0.30 kg m2 The radius of gyration about the proximal end is larger than the radius of gyration about the distal end because more mass is distributed further from the proximal end than the distal end.