What can you remember from the definitions on language ideologies?
List Kroskrity's (2004) 5 dimensions of language ideologies.
Awareness of the ideological nature of these views differs (Kroskrity's 3rd dimension). Give examples for an openly ideological and a rather 'common sense' debate about language.
Gender neutral language (recognised as ideological by most) vs. standard English and grammar as hegemonic standard (defended as common sense by most).
Mediation between social structures and forms of language (Kroskrity's 4th dimension). What are the three tools by Irvine and Gal to reveal linguistic ideologies?
Ideologies are productively used in the creation and representation of various social and cultural identities, such as nationalism and ethnicity (Kroskrity's 5th dimension). Give some examples
- nation building in general - one nation, one language
- Association of classical Arabic with Islam
- Pronunciation of BATH vowel in northern England.
What is a standard ideology?
bias towards an abstracted, idealized and homogenous spoken language which is imposed and maintained by dominant instiutions and has a written form as model. It is drawn primarily form speech of upper middle classes.
How does the belief that standard forms of languages exist affect the way we think language?
- negative thoughts about varieties are a possible consequence, as well as languages in general that don't have an established standard. This works together with fractal recursivity and erasure.
How is uniformity linked to prestige and elite?
Standard = uniform; the elite are prestigious and so characteristics of them gain prestige; language of elite = prestigious = standard. - FRACTAL RECURSIVITY RIGHT THERE