definitions: downward flux >0; upward flux <0;
- solar radiation (nearly transparent atmosphere for solar radiation)
- main: increases with decreasing latitude; second importance: cloud climatology
- maxima can be found at equatorial cold tongues (east side of the ocean basins), where low cloudiness can be found
- major outgoing flux of the ocean surface
- global maxima can be found at western boundary outflow regimes
- Kuroshio Stream, Gulf Stream
- here warm SST's meet cold and dry air from the continents
- strong latent heat loss exists at extratropics/subtropics
- relatively low latent heat flux at the cold tongues of surface waters in the eastern equatorial Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.
- small latent heat loss at high latitudes due to low SST's
- longwave radiation is controlled by the difference of ingoing and outgoing longwave radiation
- at low latitudes, the outgoing radiation is rather low because SST don't exceed atmospheric temperatures
- in subtropical regions and the western boundary, the outgoing longwave radiation is the highest because of heat transport northwards.
- controlled by the difference between ocean surface temperature and the atmosphere's temperature
- is maximal at the western boundary outflow regimes
- positive at high latitudes due to stronger atmospheric heat transport
- positive at upwelling regions (east-side of the ocean basins)
- in first-order increases with decreasing latitude
- poleward heat transport!
- the strongest gain at the Pacific and Atlantic cold tongues
- the biggest loss at the western boundary outflow regimes
- major loss at Atlantics high latitudes due to strong meridional overturning circulation.
Rui Xing Huang et al. 2010: S. 6