Karten 13 Karten
Lernende 12 Lernende
Sprache English
Stufe Universität
Erstellt / Aktualisiert 07.12.2017 / 02.07.2018
Lizenzierung Keine Angabe
0 Exakte Antworten 13 Text Antworten 0 Multiple Choice Antworten
Fenster schliessen

What is prescriptivism and who holds prescriptive views (3 examples)?

Prescriptivism: Languages have a set of externally set rules that speakers should follow.

Who: Dictionary writers, grammar writers, government institutions (media, education, civil service, etc.) employers, parents, everyone?

Fenster schliessen

What is descriptivism and for what historical and linguistic reasons is it used?

Descriptivism: Interest in how people actually speak.

Historical reasons: e.g. the development of English from Indo-European

Linguistic reasons: all varieties have fully functioning grammars acquired by native speakers.

Fenster schliessen

How do pre- and descriptivist views on grammar differ?

learned vs. acquired.

prescriptivist views treat grammar as external set of rules imposed from outside by authority.

descriptivist views treat grammar as complex and abstract human system, not imposed overtly.

Fenster schliessen

What attitudes towards language to we leave school with?

We acquire prescriptivist views through school. A sense of what is 'right' or 'wrong' and what can and cannot be written. Prioritise written over spoken. Language structure= tied to written language.

Fenster schliessen

Why do sociolinguists call standard languages artificial?

  • Socially and historically created
  • derived from national elites and supported through institutions of power
  • codified in an attempt to get rid of variability
  • Often seen as symbol of national unity, distinctiveness, prowess and prestige
  • The NORM, seen as correct and proper
  • trigger a complaint tradition
Fenster schliessen

What other aspects (apart from being artificial) don't sociolinguists like about standard languages?

  1. symbols of political power, rather than based on linguisitic distincitiveness (e.g. Yugoslavia)
  2. Linguistically odd, as they suppress language variation. Std English does not permit much variability
  3. Most 'tidy' in their written form; but writing is learnt not acquired. Speech and song = naturally human. BUT knowlege of spoken grammars is poor in comparison to written. 
  4. don't have native speakers: they are ideological
  5. They conserve odd forms (e.g. 3rd pers. sing. 's')
  6. They're not the only one with norms anyway! Every variety/community needs them
Fenster schliessen

What are some of the differences between writing and speech?

 - no paralinguistic cues
 - unspoken background language
 - largely solitary, not so social;
 - doesn't permit vagueness, ellipsis, ambiguitiy, etc. to the same extent
 - planned, context-free, elaborated, permanent, learned

Fenster schliessen

1 Kommentare

  • 08.12.2017
    Kommentar gelöscht

How do standard language forms oppress non-standard ones?

Constant standard use in formal contexts by powerful people leads speakers to:

  • combine use of standard with non-standard forms in their speech;
  • absorb attitudes of linguistic inferiority about the non-standard form;
  • assume the standard form denotes correctness, civilization, education, truth, etc.
  • internalize 'standard ideologies'.